> Ergebnisliste zu "ADDITIONAL FORMAL AND THEMATIC CATEGORIES"
Outline of Cultural Materials (OCM)
Thematische KlassifikationSuchbegriffe und Text sind grundsätzlich englisch.
Bei den jeweiligen Kategorien finden Sie die Erläuterungen und können eine Recherche im IDS BS/BE starten. Die Ergebnisliste zeigt dort alle mit diesem Code klassifizierten Titel mit Bestellmöglichkeit an.
Für Publikationen über Textilien und ihre Herstellung existiert ein separater Index mit spezifischen Begriffen in Deutsch. Er wurde im MKB mit der Differenzierung der OCM-Kategorie 28 entwickelt.
> Link auf Textilindex
Für Publikationen über Textilien und ihre Herstellung existiert ein separater Index mit spezifischen Begriffen in Deutsch. Er wurde im MKB mit der Differenzierung der OCM-Kategorie 28 entwickelt.
> Link auf Textilindex
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0 - ADDITIONAL FORMAL AND THEMATIC CATEGORIES
010 - Lexika
> Ergebnisliste zu "Lexika"
011 - Wörter- und Sprachlehrbücher
> Ergebnisliste zu "Wörter- und Sprachlehrbücher"
015 - Hand- und Lehrbücher, Reader
> Ergebnisliste zu "Hand- und Lehrbücher, Reader"
018 - Lizentiats-, Magister-, Masterarbeiten
> Ergebnisliste zu "Lizentiats-, Magister-, Masterarbeiten"
019 - Dissertationen, Habilitationsschriften
> Ergebnisliste zu "Dissertationen, Habilitationsschriften"
030 - Schallplatten, Kassetten
> Ergebnisliste zu "Schallplatten, Kassetten"
031 - Filme
> Ergebnisliste zu "Filme"
032 - Mikrofilme
> Ergebnisliste zu "Mikrofilme"
033 - Mikrofiches
> Ergebnisliste zu "Mikrofiches"
034 - CD-ROM, DVD-ROM
> Ergebnisliste zu "CD-ROM, DVD-ROM"
035 - Videofilme
> Ergebnisliste zu "Videofilme"
036 - DVD, DVD VIDEO
> Ergebnisliste zu "DVD, DVD VIDEO"
040 - Handschriften
> Ergebnisliste zu "Handschriften"
060 - History of Cultural Anthropology
> Ergebnisliste zu "History of Cultural Anthropology"
070 - Biographien, Sekundärliteratur
> Ergebnisliste zu "Biographien, Sekundärliteratur"
080 - DEVELOPMENT AID
manuals, journals, bibliographies.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DEVELOPMENT AID"
080.1 - DEVELOPMENT THEORIES
general theoretical thoughts on causes of development and underdevelopment. Anthropology and development. Anthropology in relation to development aid. Anthropological theories on development.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DEVELOPMENT THEORIES"
080.2 - DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY AND POLICY
general thoughts on practical issues, e.g., technologies, adapted development, education, family planning; political measures and guiding principles for development; economic and social policies in developing countries; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY AND POLICY"
080.3 - DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
descriptions, analysis, evaluation; case studies; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS"
090 - Material Culture
> Ergebnisliste zu "Material Culture"
098 - Filmkommentare
> Ergebnisliste zu "Filmkommentare"
099 - Studienführer
> Ergebnisliste zu "Studienführer"
10 - ORIENTATION
information especially likely to be needed by users of a file as a frame of reference for understanding the materials classified elsewhere; organization of the file, special coding decisions, and evaluation of the file.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ORIENTATION"
101 - IDENTIFICATION
name of the society of cultural group; alternative names bestowed by selves and others; meanings of names; location of group with reference to comparable and larger groups; names given by selves to other groups; affiliation with a culture area or subarea; period as of which the culture is described, and its relationship to other time periods; local and temporal subdivisions employed in the classification of data; specification of date and locale of field study; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "IDENTIFICATION"
102 - MAPS
reproductions of all maps. Specific maps will also be found under the appropriate descriptive category.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MAPS"
103 - PLACE NAMES
lists of the names of settlements and geographical features; etymologies of place names; historical and cultural connotations; bestowal of place names; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PLACE NAMES"
104 - GLOSSARY
definitions of native terms frequently used in the sources; orthographies and transliteration systems.
> Ergebnisliste zu "GLOSSARY"
105 - CULTURAL SUMMARY
synopsis of the whole culture (as a background for specific information); references to summaries in other works.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CULTURAL SUMMARY"
106 - CODED DATA
the concise, quantitative and/or qualitative expression or interpretation of cultural, social, ecological or other variables relating to human behavior; the data are classified into pre-conceived categories represented by number and/or letter codes. Common reasons for presenting data in coded form are to facilitate statistical analyses, and/or to facilitate cross-cultural comparisons.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CODED DATA"
11 - BIBLIOGRAPHY
sources of information on the particular society during the time period specified in the Outline of World Cultures, and data relevant to their evaluation.
> Ergebnisliste zu "BIBLIOGRAPHY"
111 - SOURCES PROCESSED
complete bibliographical references to all sources actually processed, with a brief critique of each. Sources are numbered, and arranged numerically.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SOURCES PROCESSED"
112 - SOURCES CONSULTED
full bibliographical references to sources consulted but not processed. Sources are arranged by alphabetic order of authors' surnames.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SOURCES CONSULTED"
113 - ADDITIONAL REFERENCES
bibliographical lists; annotated bibliographies; works referred to in processed sources; other information sources (e.g., museum collections and. archives); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ADDITIONAL REFERENCES"
114 - COMMENTS
reviews by other authors; critiques of earlier sources; author's comments about his other publications; information about authors, other research and field personnel and their backgrounds; general statements on prior field experience; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "COMMENTS"
114.1 - EXPEDITIONSBERICHTE
short coverages, reportings.
> Ergebnisliste zu "EXPEDITIONSBERICHTE"
115 - INFORMANTS
identification and characterization of persons serving as sources of information.
> Ergebnisliste zu "INFORMANTS"
116 - TEXTS
a full set of pages from each processed source, arranged in page order, as a means of establishing the context for any particular file page. Sets are arranged in the numerical order of the sources.
> Ergebnisliste zu "TEXTS"
117 - FIELD DATA
journals and diaries kept in the field; unorganized field notes; etc. This category is primarily designed for materials not adaptable to distribution among other categories.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FIELD DATA"
118 - FICTION
works of fiction about the culture by non-native authors.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FICTION"
12.1 - FIELD RESEARCH – methods and problems; detailed, full reports.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FIELD RESEARCH – methods and problems; detailed, full reports."
12 - METHODOLOGY
descriptions and discussions of methods employed by the observers of the particular society. Generalized statements dealing with several of the specific subjects covered below. General statements about factors affecting the consistency, reliability and validity of the data obtained.
> Ergebnisliste zu "METHODOLOGY"
121 - THEORETICAL ORIENTATION
research aims and objectives (e.g., complete ethnographic description, study of a particular institution or culture complex, testing of a theoretical hypothesis) ; general theoretical approach (e.g., historical, functional, psychological); formulation of research program; reasons for choice of particular field site; theoretical results; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "THEORETICAL ORIENTATION"
121.1 - MARXIST ANTHROPOLOGY
> Ergebnisliste zu "MARXIST ANTHROPOLOGY"
121.2 - HISTORY OF CULTURE, “KULTURKREISLEHRE”, “KULTURMORPHOLOGIE”
> Ergebnisliste zu "HISTORY OF CULTURE, “KULTURKREISLEHRE”, “KULTURMORPHOLOGIE”"
121.3 - “KULTURAREAL”, ANTHROPOGEOGRAPHY, DIFFUSIONISM, CULTURAL RELATIVISM
> Ergebnisliste zu "“KULTURAREAL”, ANTHROPOGEOGRAPHY, DIFFUSIONISM, CULTURAL RELATIVISM"
121.4 - EVOLUTIONISM, NEOEVOLUTIONISM
> Ergebnisliste zu "EVOLUTIONISM, NEOEVOLUTIONISM"
121.6 - FUNCTIONALISM, STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM
> Ergebnisliste zu "FUNCTIONALISM, STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM"
121.7 - STRUCTURALISM
> Ergebnisliste zu "STRUCTURALISM"
121.8 - POSTSTRUCTURALISM, POSTMODERNISM, CONSTRUCTIVISM
> Ergebnisliste zu "POSTSTRUCTURALISM, POSTMODERNISM, CONSTRUCTIVISM"
121.9 - DISCOURSE ANALYSIS, DISCOURSE THEORY, PERFORMANCE THEORY
> Ergebnisliste zu "DISCOURSE ANALYSIS, DISCOURSE THEORY, PERFORMANCE THEORY"
121.10 - HERMENEUTICS
> Ergebnisliste zu "HERMENEUTICS"
122 - PRACTICAL PREPARATIONS
source of financial support (expedition expenses, cost of publishinq results, etc.); selection and assembly of equipment; coping with problems of transportation and bureaucratic red tape; familiarization with previous descriptive literature; learning language; living conditions in the field; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PRACTICAL PREPARATIONS"
123 - OBSERVATIONAL ROLE
techniques for extablishing rapport; assumption or ascription of a status in the community; methods of altering the observer's status; adoption of the technique of participant observation; degree of participation in community life actually achieved; effect of the observer's presence on the life of the community; limitations imposed by sex of observer; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "OBSERVATIONAL ROLE"
124 - INTERVIEWING
methods of selecting informants or subjects (e.g., sampling); use of native language; use and selection of interpreters; methods of checking and rewarding informants and interpreters; group interviewing; methods of interviewing (e.g., question and answer, nondirective, use of topical outlines); special techniques (e.g., life history, genealogical, event centered, oral history); use of documents prepared by informants; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "INTERVIEWING"
125 - TESTS AND SCHEDULES
description of tests used (e.g., intelligence, projective); schedules and questionnaires employed (e.g., preparation, pretesting); administration of tests, schedules, and questionnaires; sampling techniques; methods of scoring; use of control groups; special experiments; census-taking by author; blood-typing; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "TESTS AND SCHEDULES"
126 - RECORDING AND COLLECTING
methods of note taking (e.g., verbatim, post-interview summaries); taking of native texts; use of diaries and journals; utilization of sound and photographic equipment; preparation of sketches, charts, and maps; collection of field specimens; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "RECORDING AND COLLECTING"
127 - HISTORICAL RESEARCH
extent to which original field research was supplemented or replaced by the use of records; types of records utilized (e.g., archaeological remains, unpublished documents, museum collections, census data, literary sources, earlier published materials); techniques of analysis and criticism applied in assessing source materials; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "HISTORICAL RESEARCH"
128 - ORGANIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
identification of material; methods of processing raw data (e.g., analysis, classification, quantification); special techniques of analysis (e.g., phonemic, sociometric); preparation of tables and graphs; methods of determining consistency, reliability, and validity of results (e.g., statistical, use of ratings and scales); organization of materials for presentation in published form: author's discussion of his organization of the source; deposition of field notes; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ORGANIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS"
128.1 - ORGANIZATION, CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH MATERIAL
> Ergebnisliste zu "ORGANIZATION, CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH MATERIAL"
128.2 - MATHEMATICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, SYSTEM THEORY AND CYBERNETICS, STATISTICS, NETWORK ANALYSIS
> Ergebnisliste zu "MATHEMATICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, SYSTEM THEORY AND CYBERNETICS, STATISTICS, NETWORK ANALYSIS"
13 - GEOGRAPHY
general statements covering several aspects of geographical description and analysis.
> Ergebnisliste zu "GEOGRAPHY"
131 - LOCATION
latitude and longitude; position in relation to land and sea (e.g., insular, coastal, interior); area and extent of territory occupied; accessibility by land and sea routes; boundaries; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "LOCATION"
132 - CLIMATE
type of climate; seasons (e.g., number, dates, character); temperature (e.g., annual mean, extreme range, daily and seasonal variations); precipitation (e.g., mean annual rainfall, seasonal distribution, snowfall); humidity; frosts; winds (e.g., prevailing winds, cyclonic storms); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CLIMATE"
133 - TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY
altitude above sea level; relief (e.g., hills, mountains, plateaus, passes); bodies of water (e.g., lakes, rivers, arms of the sea, swamps); subsurface water; character of seacoast and adjacent marine floor; tides and currents; floods; areas of volcanic and seismic activity; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY"
134 - SOIL
physical and chemical characteristics of the soil; erosion; soil types and soil fertility; area susceptible of cultivation (e.g., by local methods, by modern scientific methods); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SOIL"
135 - MINERAL RESOURCES
availability or significant lack of mineral deposits (e.g., metals, stone, coal, petroleum, clay, salt); quantity, quality, and distribution of minerals; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MINERAL RESOURCES"
136 - FAUNA
principal native species, especially mammals, reptiles, birds, fish and shellfish, insects, and micro-fauna; historical changes (e.g., introduced species); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FAUNA"
137 - FLORA
general type of flora (e.g., jungle, equatorial forest, tropical scrub, savanna, desert, steppe, prairie, deciduous forest, coniferous forest, tundra); types of wood; important species of land and marine flora; historical changes (e.g., introduced species); micro-flora; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FLORA"
14 - HUMAN BIOLOGY
general statements dealing with several types of scientific biological data about the members of the society. Occurrence and distribution of biological characteristics will be included in the 14* categories below.
> Ergebnisliste zu "HUMAN BIOLOGY"
141 - ANTHROPOMETRY
mean, range, and sex distribution of physical measurements (e.g., stature, weight, span, length of limbs); indices (e.g., cephalic, nasal); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ANTHROPOMETRY"
142 - DESCRIPTIVE SOMATOLOGY
color of skin, hair, and eyes; form, length, and distribution of hair; musculature; secondary sexual, characteristics; somatotype data; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DESCRIPTIVE SOMATOLOGY"
143 - GENETICS
blood groupings; incidence of sex-linked characteristics (e.g., color blindness, hemophilia); other data of specific genetic significance (e.g., unusual response potentialities or limitations); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "GENETICS"
144 - RACIAL AFFINITIES
indicated affiliation with established races and subraces; supporting evidence; extent of race mixture; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "RACIAL AFFINITIES"
145 - ONTOGENETIC DATA
evidence as to physical growth and mental development during infancy and childhood; eruption of teeth; age at puberty for each sex; age at menopause and onset of senile impotence; characteristics of menstruation and menopause; physical senescence; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ONTOGENETIC DATA"
146 - NUTRITION
evidences of malnutrition and dietary deficiencies; adequacy of the diet of subgroups and of the population as a whole; chemical analyses of native foods; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "NUTRITION"
147 - PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA
evidence bearing upon physiological systems and their functions (e.g., cardio-vascular, respiratory, gastro-intestinal, genito-urinary, nervous, endocrine); metabolism; salt and water balance; indications of physiological stamina (e.g., strength and endurance); characteristic body odor; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA"
15 - BEHAVIOR PROCESSES AND PERSONALITY
general statements dealing with several distinct types of mechanisms and manifestations of individual behavior and personality as these appear to the observer and the scientist.
> Ergebnisliste zu "BEHAVIOR PROCESSES AND PERSONALITY"
151 - SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
acuity of vision, hearing, taste, smell, and touch (e.g., uncontrolled observations, reports of tests); evidence on sensory discrimination and perception (e.g., form configurations, color perception, optical illusions, tone discrimination); data on the cultural patterning of perception; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SENSATION AND PERCEPTION"
152 - DRIVES AND EMOTIONS
evidence bearing upon the nature and intensity of basic impulses or drives (e.g., hunger, thirst, need for oxygen, sex, urination, defecation, pain, heat and cold discomfort, fatigue); information pertaining to the incidence and quality of derived drives,and emotions (e.g., aggression, anger, hate, jealousy, fear, anxiety, depression, grief, disgust, homesickness, love, sympathy, elation, excitement, mirth, curiosity, greed, ambition, vanity, inferiority); expression and control of emotions (e.g., stoicism); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DRIVES AND EMOTIONS"
153 - MODIFICATION OF BEHAVIOR
specific evidence concerning the mechanisms of conditioning and habit formation (e.g., conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, configurations, response hierarchy, random behavior, positive and negative reinforcement, generalization, discrimination, anticipation); data on types of problem solution (e.g., trial and error, insight or intelligence, imitation); evidence as to special mechanisms in verbal or symbolic learning; results of aptitude and intelligence tests; data bearing upon conscious mental processes (e.g., memory, judgment, reasoning, conation, reactions in emergencies); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MODIFICATION OF BEHAVIOR"
154 - ADJUSTMENT PROCESSES
evidence bearing upon the incidence, nature and cultural patterning of unconscious mental processes (e.g., free association, dreaming, fantasy, visions, inspiration, intuition); modes of resolving situations involving conflict, frustration, and anxiety; observations and inferences concerning adjustment mechanisms (e.g., repression, regression, displacement, projection, introjection, identification); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ADJUSTMENT PROCESSES"
155 - PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
evidences and inferences concerning the influence of constitutional factors, of physiological strains, and of social pressures and physical environment on the development of personality; psychological and psychoanalytic interpretations of personality formation under particular sociocultural conditions; evidence as to levels of personality development (e.g., anal, oral); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT"
156 - SOCIAL PERSONALITY
conception of the self in relation to others; enhancement and defense of the self; social participation and isolation; individual roles in relation to culturally defined statuses; interpretations of personality as reflecting social norms; conformity; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SOCIAL PERSONALITY"
157 - PERSONALITY TRAITS
occurrence of idiosyncratic habits (e.g., biting of lips or nails, twiddling of thumbs, wringing of hands); prevalence of cooperativeness and competitiveness; incidence and distribution of recurrent personality traits (e.g., leadership, submissiveness, aggressiveness); incidence and distribution of recognized types of personality (e.g., introvert, extrovert, obsessional, manic, paranoid, hypochondriac); generalized results of personality tests; indications of cultural selectivity with reference to personality traits and types: evidence bearing upon the existence of a modal or basic personality; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PERSONALITY TRAITS"
158 - PERSONALITY DISORDERS
incidence and distribution of hypertension and of symptoms of neurotic or functional disorders (e.g., hysteria, hypochondria, compulsive behavior, generalized anxiety), of motor disturbances (e.g., tics, stammering), of dissociative behavior (e.g., amnesia, somnambulism), of hallucinations and delusions, of manias (e.g., kleptomania, pyromania), of sadistic and masochistic behavior, of addiction (e.g., to drugs or alcohol) and of severe psychic disturbances (e.g., phobias, manicdepresive psychoses, involutional melancholia, schizophrenia); psychiatric interpretations of mental disorders; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PERSONALITY DISORDERS"
159 - LIFE HISTORY MATERIALS
observations and interpretations of individual behavior, character, and personality; clinical analyses; case records; biographical materials; collections and interpretations of individual dreams; results of tests designed to measure acquired behavior or personality (e.g., tests of motor or verbal skills, projective tests); etc. Generalizations or conclusions relating to groups or classes of individuals will be filed elsewhere under appropriate headings. For specific professional or occupational biographies, see also under appropriate headings.
> Ergebnisliste zu "LIFE HISTORY MATERIALS"
16 - DEMOGRAPHY
general statements covering several distinct types of information on population, including vital statistics.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DEMOGRAPHY"
161 - POPULATION
enumerations and estimates (with dates); density (e.g., arithmetical, for arable land); population trends; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "POPULATION"
162 - COMPOSITION OF POPULATION
distribution of population by age, sex, locality, marital status, mode of life (e.g., rural and urban, nomadic and sedentary), and by social groupings (e.g., occupation, religion, class, ethnic group); size of families; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "COMPOSITION OF POPULATION"
163 - BIRTH STATISTICS
birth rates; distribution of births (e.g., by season, locality, race, sex, occupation); incidence of stillbirths and multiple births; age of parents at birth of first child; spacing of children; number of children per completed family; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "BIRTH STATISTICS"
164 - MORBIDITY
incidence, nature, and distribution of various diseases and accidents (e.g., by location, season, sex, age, occupation); occurrence of epidemics; evidence of immunity or susceptibility to disease; dental ailments; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MORBIDITY"
165 - MORTALITY
death rates (crude and corrected); infant and maternal mortality; distribution of deaths (e.g., by cause, season, age, occupation, locality); life expectancy; authentic cases of extreme longevity; prevalent causes of death (e.g., illness, accident, old age); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MORTALITY"
166 - INTERNAL MIGRATION
shifting of residence between communities and districts within the society; organized resettlement; trends toward redistribution of the population; restrictive regulation; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "INTERNAL MIGRATION"
167 - IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION
extent and sources of immigration; extent and destination of emigration: reasons for migration; trends; restrictive regulation; colonization; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION"
168 - POPULATION POLICY
theories and attitudes relating to the control of population; measures designed to stimulate or limit population growth; concepts of optimum population; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "POPULATION POLICY"
170.1 - SOCIAL CHANGE
effects of change on social structures (institutions, family, social group formations, individualization); case studies on general social change not covered by any other specific category.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SOCIAL CHANGE"
170.2 - ECONOMIC CHANGE
economic development of a country; development of different sectors (industry, craft, agriculture, trade); economic effects of general change; case studies on general economic change not covered by any other specific category.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ECONOMIC CHANGE"
170.3 - RELIGIOUS CHANGE
> Ergebnisliste zu "RELIGIOUS CHANGE"
170.4 - POLITICAL CHANGE
> Ergebnisliste zu "POLITICAL CHANGE"
17 - HISTORY AND CULTURE CHANGE
general statements dealing with several specific types of information on history and culture change. Since separate files will be prepared on each major historical period for societies with an appreciable known time depth, the categories below are designed to include only (a) information bearing upon the society's prehistory and (b) historical data for the specific time period which do not readily fall into particular categories elsewhere in this Outline.
> Ergebnisliste zu "HISTORY AND CULTURE CHANGE"
171 - DISTRIBUTIONAL EVIDENCE
occurrence of similar culture traits in other societies; inferences from trait distributions; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DISTRIBUTIONAL EVIDENCE"
172 - ARCHEOLOGY
prehistoric culture sequences and chronology (e.g., as determined by geological and paleontological evidence, stratigraphy, typology, tree-ring dating); archeological supplementation of the historical record; evidence from epigraphy; historical inferences from archeological data; description of archeological sites or artifacts; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ARCHEOLOGY"
173 - TRADITIONAL HISTORY
oral historical traditions and evidence as to their reliability; dynastic lists and genealogies; historical inferences from myth and tradition; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "TRADITIONAL HISTORY"
174 - HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION
inferences as to origins, migrations, contacts, prehistory and culture history from various types of evidence (e.g., anthropometry and language), but excluding written documents; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION"
175 - RECORDED HISTORY
written sources (e.g., chronicles, reports of travelers, official records and documents) and their interpretation; evidence and inferences about prehistoric and historic events from such sources; summaries of historical development within the periods distinguished under Category 101; specific historical information pertinent to an understanding of culture change; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "RECORDED HISTORY"
176 - INNOVATION
analyses or general summaries of discoveries and inventions originating within the cultural group; factors involved (e.g., accident, genius, cultural base); number, range, and frequency of innovations, inventors and innovators; etc. For specific inventions see the appropriate descriptive category.
> Ergebnisliste zu "INNOVATION"
177 - ACCULTURATION AND CULTURE CONTACT
number, character, and intensity of contacts with alien cultures; factors affecting cultural receptivity; instances of cultural borrowing; adaptive modification of introduced elements; agencies and agents of culture change; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ACCULTURATION AND CULTURE CONTACT"
177.1 - CULTURE CONTACT
mutual influence; adaptation of elements of an alien culture.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CULTURE CONTACT"
177.2 - ACCULTURATION
influences on a culture resulting from asymmetric relations; dominant relations; culture contact between asymmetric societies.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ACCULTURATION"
178 - SOCIOCULTURAL TRENDS
changes in fundamental underlying conditions; linear trends (e.g., cultural drift); cyclical trends (e.g., fashions and vogues);dynamic processes (e.g. integration, selective elimination, cultural evolution); evidence of cultural lag; evidence of cultural continuity or stability; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SOCIOCULTURAL TRENDS"
179 - aufgehoben (es gibt aber noch 11 Einträge im Katalog)
> Ergebnisliste zu "aufgehoben (es gibt aber noch 11 Einträge im Katalog)"
18 - TOTAL CULTURE
summary statements on the total culture as interpreted or described by an author. The categories below are intended to include descriptive and interpretive materials which pertain to the entire culture or which override a number of more specific categories. Consequently much of the material pertinent to the individual topics below will be found only under other headings.
> Ergebnisliste zu "TOTAL CULTURE"
181 - ETHOS
general orientation of the culture; predominating interests, values, themes, and motivations; characterizations of the total culture (e.g., as "conservative”, "competitive", "militaristic", "spirit-ridden", "Apollonian", "folk", "urban"); allegations and inferences as to national character; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ETHOS"
182 - FUNCTION
internal cultural consistency or its lack; allegations of integration or disintegration; adjustments of parts of the culture to one another; relation of cultural forms to biological and social needs and to physical environment; environmental adjustment; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FUNCTION"
183 - NORMS
native and scientific definitions of custom (e.g., as ideal patterns, as ranges of variation within limits, as statistical inductions from observed behavior); positive and negative norms (e.g., folkways, taboos); verbalized and covert norms; investment of norms with affect and symbolic value (e.g., mores, idealization); discrepancies between ideals and behavior; configurations of norms (e.g., culture complexes, institutions) ; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "NORMS"
184 - CULTURAL PARTICIPATION
prevalence of "specialties" and “alternatives”; degree of proliferation of subcultures, intracultural differences, and special statuses; extent to which the entire culture is socially shared; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CULTURAL PARTICIPATION"
185 - CULTURAL GOALS
social foresight; concept of progress; reform movements and utopian goals; prevention of waste; social planning conservation policies; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CULTURAL GOALS"
186 - ETHNOCENTRISM
exaltation of the ingroup (e.g., consciousness of kind, local pride, patriotism, class consciousness, old school tie); unfavorable judgments of other groups (e.g., race prejudice, religious intolerance, national antipathies); overt manifestations (e.g., snobbishness, discrimination, ethical dualism, nationalism); symbolic representation (e.g., flags, anthems, emblems, national heroes); channelling of hostilities (e.g., sports rivalry, ethnic scapegoats); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ETHNOCENTRISM"
187 - MONOGRAPHS
> Ergebnisliste zu "MONOGRAPHS"
189 - ETHNOCIDE
> Ergebnisliste zu "ETHNOCIDE"
19 - LANGUAGE
general statements dealing with various aspects of language. The categories below are devoted to the use and scientific analysis of language. Terminology pertinent to special aspects of culture will commonly be found only under appropriate topical headings elsewhere.
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191 - SPEECH
notions about language; standards of correctness; individual speech idiosyncrasies; ideas about speech defects (e.g., stuttering); speech aids (e.g., megaphone); public address systems; bilingualism; etc.
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192 - VOCABULARY
relative paucity or richness of vocabulary; range of vocabulary in ordinary use; receptivity to loan words; elaboration of vocabulary in particular directions; special vocabularies (e.g., sacred words, slang, legal language, technical words, occupational jargon); words and phrases with strong emotional connotations; dictionaries; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "VOCABULARY"
193 - GRAMMAR
morpheme classes (e.g., roots, stems, affixes); morphological processes (e.g., prefixation, infixation, suffixation, reduplication, ablaut); word formation (i.e., composition, derivation, inflection); grammatical categories (e.g., number, gender, case, tense, mode, aspect, voice); degree of synthesis (e.g., analytic, synthetic, polysynthetic); morphological and syntactic word classes or ‘parts of speech' (e.g., nouns, verbs); syntax (constructions; phrase and sentence structure; favourite sentence types); etc.
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194 - PHONOLOGY
phonemic inventory (including suprasegmentals such as stress and pitch); articulation and allophony of phonemes; distribution of phonemes; morphophonemic adjustments; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PHONOLOGY"
195 - STYLISTICS
differentiation in styles (e.g., conversational, narrative, rhetorical); stylistic modifications in phonology, grammar, and vocabulary; styles typed according to sex, age, status, and social context; euphemisms and metaphorical usages; profanity; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "STYLISTICS"
196 - SEMANTICS
general problems of meaning and linguistic symbolism; semantics of morphological and lexical elements; affectual connotation (e.g., tone of voice, rapidity of delivery); multiple contextual definitions of words and phrases; semantic drift; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SEMANTICS"
197 - LINGUISTIC IDENTIFICATION
dominant language or languages; affiliation with other languages and position within a linguistic stock or family; dialectal differentiation; comments on processes of linguistic change (e.g., sound change, borrowing, 'drift'); etc.
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198 - SPECIAL LANGUAGES
marginal languages (e.g., pidgin, trade languages); languages confined to a particular sex, occupation, social class, or ethnic group; special adaptations of speech (e.g., yodeling, whistling, ventriloquism); etc.
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20 - COMMUNICATION
general statements dealing with several aspects of communication over space. For communication over time, by means of records, see the 21* categories.
> Ergebnisliste zu "COMMUNICATION"
201 - GESTURES AND SIGNS
patterned expressions of emotion (e.g., affection, aggression, derision, fear, disgust); gestures of affirmation and negation; indications of size and shape; directive signs (e.g., beckoning, warning); sign languages and their use (e.g., by the deaf, in intertribal communication); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "GESTURES AND SIGNS"
202 - TRANSMISSION OF MESSAGES
signaling devices (e.g., fire, smoke, blinker, semaphore); signal codes (e.g., drum language, flag codes, Morse code); cryptography; use of carrier birds and animals; messenger and courier systems; etc.
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203 - DISSEMINATION OF NEWS AND INFORMATION
informal verbal transmission (e.g., rumor, grapevine); criers and heralds; bulletins and newsletters; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DISSEMINATION OF NEWS AND INFORMATION"
204 - PRESS
newspapers and magazines; gathering of news and information (e.g., reporters, press releases, news services); content (e.g., news, stories, features); publication and distribution; ownership, organization, and personnel; financial support (e.g., subscriptions, advertising, subsidies); regulation; etc.
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205 - POSTAL SYSTEM
mail services (e.g., collection, delivery); transportation of mail (e.g., by pony express, rail, air); special equipment; parcel post; postal organization and personnel; finance (e.g., postal rates, subsidies); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "POSTAL SYSTEM"
206 - TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH
technology; use of equipment; facilities and services; organization and personnel; public and private systems; finance (e.g., rates, subsidies); regulation; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH"
207 - RADIO AND TELEVISION
radio, television, radar, sonar, etc.; technology; use of equipment; facilities and services; organization and specialized personnel; programs and their preparation; audience; finance (e.g., advertising, subsidies); regulation; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "RADIO AND TELEVISION"
208 - PUBLIC OPINION
attitudes; importance accorded them; modes of expression; measurements (e.g., informal means, public opinion polls and surveys); molding of public opinion (e.g., publicity, propaganda); influence of various media; specialized personnel; etc. This category is designed primarily to cover the expression and molding of public opinions and attitudes; in nearly all instances information on specific attitudes will be classified elsewhere under the relevant subject categories.
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209 - PROXEMICS
conscious and unconscious structuring of space between individuals in interpersonal communication; ideas and knowledge about and interpretation of such space as a special elaboration of culture; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PROXEMICS"
21 - RECORDS
general statements dealing with several aspects of communication over time, by means of more or less permanent records.
> Ergebnisliste zu "RECORDS"
211 - MNEMONIC DEVICES
aids to memory; elaborated devices (e.g., wampum, quipu); uses; interpretation; commemorative monuments (e.g., statues); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MNEMONIC DEVICES"
212 - WRITING
picture writing (e.g., type, technique, use); written symbols (e.g., ideograms, phonograms); systematization (e.g., syllabary, alphabet); reading and spelling; incidence of literacy; writing materials (e.g., parchment, paper, ink); instruments (e.g., pen, brush); methods (e.g., shorthand, chirography); products (e.g., inscriptions, diaries, letters, personal records, manuscripts); clerical specialists (e.g., scribes, stenographers); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "WRITING"
213 - PRINTING
methods (e.g., block printing, movable type, linotype, photographic reproduction); materials (e.g., paper, ink); typography; binding; products (e.g., sheet music, maps, pamphlets); specialists; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PRINTING"
214 - PUBLISHING
organized production and distribution or records; products (e.g., books, sheet music, phonograph records); personnel and organization; selection of material to be published; business arrangements with authors; (e.g., advances, royalties); sales promotion; finance (e.g., profits, subsidies); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PUBLISHING"
215 - PHOTOGRAPHY
techniques of photographic reproduction; equipment used; products and their uses; specialists; business elaboration of photographic services; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PHOTOGRAPHY"
216 - SOUND RECORDS
techniques of sound recording; appliances used (e.g., phonographs, tape and wire recorders); uses; products; specialists; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SOUND RECORDS"
217 - ARCHIVES
collections and repositories of institutional or personal records (e.g., libraries, art galleries, museums); state archives (e.g., court records, administrative records); making collections; accessions; filing and indexing; curatorial activities; services (e.g., exhibits, loans); organization and specialized personnel; sources of support (e.g., public, private) ; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ARCHIVES"
217.1 - MUSEUM DIRECTORIES
> Ergebnisliste zu "MUSEUM DIRECTORIES"
217.a MKB - Information about Museum der Kulturen Basel 217.a MKB
> Ergebnisliste zu "Information about Museum der Kulturen Basel 217.a MKB"
217.3 - MUSEOLOGY
collecting by museums; museum education; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MUSEOLOGY"
217.4 - RESTORATION
monument protection; monument conservation; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "RESTORATION"
217.5 - LIBRARIES AND ARCHIVES
> Ergebnisliste zu "LIBRARIES AND ARCHIVES"
217.6 - PROTECTION AND RESTITUTION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY
Agreements, regulations and legislations; cultural policy of museums; cultural heritage; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PROTECTION AND RESTITUTION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY"
218 - WRITING AND PRINTING SUPPLIES
miscellaneous materials and supplies for offices, libraries, and museums; description and manufacture of expendable supplies not elsewhere classified (e.g., stationery, index cards); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "WRITING AND PRINTING SUPPLIES"
22 - FOOD QUEST
general statements dealing with several aspects of food gathering.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FOOD QUEST"
221 - ANNUAL CYCLE
seasonal distribution and succession of foodgetting and other economic activities; seasonal migrations in the gathering or production of food (e.g., transhumance, nomadism).
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222 - COLLECTING
edible materials gathered (e.g., roots, fruits, seeds, seaweed, insects, honey, sap, syrup, eggs); techniques and artifacts employed; economic importance of collecting; organization of activities; division of products; associated beliefs and practices; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "COLLECTING"
223 - FOWLING
birds sought; methods and techniques (e.g., nets, snares, birdlime, decoys); special elaborations (e.g., falconry); organization of labor and division of catch; associated beliefs and practices; regulation (e.g., game laws); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FOWLING"
224 - HUNTING AND TRAPPING
animals sought; hunting methods and techniques (e.g., stalking, collective drive); description and use of traps and snares; use of domestic animals (e.g., dogs, ferrets); special elaborations (e.g., trapping for the fur trade); hunting trips; economic importance of hunting; organization of labor and division of catch; associated beliefs and practices; hunting for sport; regulation (e.g., game laws, open seasons); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "HUNTING AND TRAPPING"
225 - MARINE HUNTING
animals sought (e.g., whale, alligator, seal, dugong, turtle); methods and techniques employed; special elaborations (e.g., whaling and sealing); organization of labor and division of catch; associated beliefs and practices; regulation; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MARINE HUNTING"
226 - FISHING
species sought (e.g., fish, shellfish); gathering of marine fauna; fishing methods and techniques (e.g., hook and line, nets, poison); description and use of traps and weirs; special elaborations (e.g., fishing for sport); economic importance of fishing; organization of labor and division of catch; associated beliefs and practices; regulation (e.g., licenses); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FISHING"
227 - FISHING GEAR
description of fishing implements and equipment; miscellaneous gear used in fishing (e.g., rods, baskets, lures); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FISHING GEAR"
228 - MARINE INDUSTRIES
commercial elaboration of the fishing industry cultivation of fish and shellfish; nonfood marine industries (e.g., sponge collection, pearl diving, shell gathering); specialized equipment and apparatus; organization of labor and production; regulation; fish packing industry; scientific fisheries research; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MARINE INDUSTRIES"
23 - ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
general statements dealing with several of the specialized aspects of animal husbandry indicated below. Information on unspecialized animal husbandry will be filed under Category 231. For the relative importance of various productive activities see Category 433.
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231 - DOMESTICATED ANIMALS
captive and tamed animals; domesticated insects (e.g., silkworms, bees); pets (e.g., dogs, cats); domestic animals; special treatment and use of each; taming and training; care and feeding; grooming; slaughtering; associated beliefs and rituals; raising of pig herds; raising of fur-bearing animals; economic and social importance of animal husbandry; diseases; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DOMESTICATED ANIMALS"
232 - APPLIED ANIMAL SCIENCE
practical and scientific knowledge about animal husbandry; veterinary science; specialized knowledge of animal nutrition and disease control; selective breeding of animals; artificial insemination; raising of hybrids; special elaborations (e.g., raising and breeding of racehorses); veterinary services and fees; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "APPLIED ANIMAL SCIENCE"
233 - PASTORAL ACTIVITIES
large-scale herding of grazing animals (e.g., cattle, sheep, reindeer); ranges; driving and watering; branding; roundups; special equipment; specialized personnel and organization; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PASTORAL ACTIVITIES"
234 - DAIRYING
milking; handling and processing of milk; manufacture of butter and cheese; dairy equipment; special care of dairy animals; creameries; specialized distribution of milk products; organization and regulation of the dairy industry; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DAIRYING"
235 - POULTRY RAISING
domesticated fowl of economic importance; care and treatment (e.g., incubation); raising of birds for special purposes (e.g., for eggs, for feathers, for fighting); elaboration of a specialized poultry industry; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "POULTRY RAISING"
236 - WOOL PRODUCTION
specialized raising of sheep and other animals for wool; dipping; shearing; combing and carding; special equipment and apparatus; personnel and organization; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "WOOL PRODUCTION"
237 - ANIMAL BY-PRODUCTS
uses of animal by-products (e.g., bone, teeth, horn, hoofs, claws, eggshells, hides, fur, hair, bristles, feathers, sinews, brains, entrails, urine, manure); processing of such materials not elsewhere described; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ANIMAL BY-PRODUCTS"
24 - AGRICULTURE
general statements dealing with several of the specialized aspects of agriculture detailed below. General data on unspecialized agriculture will be filed under Category 241. Information on beliefs and practices associated with specialized cultivation will be filed in the specific category. For the relative importance of various productive activities see Category 433.
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241 - TILLAGE
plants cultivated and the irrelative importance; size of fields; special treatment accorded each crop; intensity of cultivation (e.g., brand tillage) ; clearing of land; soil preparation (e.g., hoeing, plowing); use of fertilizers and irrigation; planting; care and protection of growing crops (e.g., weeding, fencing, scarecrows); pest control; tools and implements used; economic importance, and adequacy for needs, of agriculture organization of labor and production; distribution of products; agricultural beliefs, taboos, and rituals; etc.
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242 - AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE
practical and scientific knowledge of plant breeding, soils, and parasites; related practices (e.g., seed selection, hybridization, crop rotation, spraying); agricultural experiment and extension work; organization and specialized personnel; etc,
> Ergebnisliste zu "AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE"
243 - CEREAL AGRICULTURE
specialized cultivation of cereal crops (e.g., maize, millet, rice, wheat); techniques of planting and harvesting (e.g., transplantation, threshing); use of specialized tools, equipment, and machinery; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CEREAL AGRICULTURE"
244 - VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
gardening where differentiated from field agriculture; truck gardening; specialized production of particular root crops, leaf plants, or vegetable fruits (e.g., peanuts, potatoes, cabbage, beans, tomatoes, melons, mushrooms, sunflowers, amaranths, strawberries, pineapples); special techniques and apparatus; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "VEGETABLE PRODUCTION"
245 - ARBORICULTURE
specialized cultivation of trees and shrubs (e.g., woody perennials) for their fruits, nuts, berries, or other edible products (e.g., apple, breadfruit, coconut, cacao, coffee, orange, raspberry, tea, hops); special care and treatment of each (e.g., grafting, picking, drying, packing); viniculture; silviculture (e.g., raising of trees for wood pulp, soil anchor, screens, shade, decoration); organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ARBORICULTURE"
246 - FORAGE CROPS
specialized production of crops for animal fodder (e.g., hay, alfalfa, vetch); techniques of planting and harvesting; use of specialized tools, equipment, and machinery; organization of labor and production; processing (e.g., baling); storage of product (e.g., in stacks, silos, barns); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FORAGE CROPS"
247 - FLORICULTURE
cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants, shrubs, and trees; flower gardens; greenhouses; special techniques, care, and equipment; business elaboration (e.g., florists, nurseries); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FLORICULTURE"
248 - TEXTILE AGRICULTURE
specialized cultivation of crops for their fibers (e.g., cotton, flax, hemp, jute); techniques of planting and harvesting; use of specialized tools and equipment; separation of fibers (e.g., ginning); organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "TEXTILE AGRICULTURE"
249 - SPECIAL CROPS
specialized cultivation of plants not classifiable under the foregoing headings (e.g., cinchona, indigo, oil palm, coca, opium poppy, rubber, sugarcane, bamboo, tobacco); techniques of planting and harvesting; use of specialized tools and equipment; organization of labor and production; processing prior to shipment or industrial use (e.g., curing, refining, grading); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SPECIAL CROPS"
25 - FOOD PROCESSING
general statements dealing with several aspects of the techniques by which foodstuffs are transformed from their original state into forms more suitable for preservation or consumption.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FOOD PROCESSING"
251 - PRESERVATION AND STORAGE OF FOOD
techniques of food drying, smoking, pickling, refrigeration, home canning); use of preservatives and special equipment; accumulation and storage of supplies and reserves; etc. Data on culturally elaborated or techniques of preservation and storage should be filed under the more specialized categories below.
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252 - FOOD PREPARATION
processing of edible materials (e.g., grinding, cutting, mixing); cooking methods and techniques (e.g., broiling, roasting, baking, boiling, frying); use of special apparatus (e.g., mills, motors, earth ovens, stoves); use of cooking implements and utensils; recipes; associated beliefs and practices; etc. Data on culturally elaborated or commercialized techniques of food preparation should be filed under the more specialized categories below.
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252.1 - COOKBOOKS
> Ergebnisliste zu "COOKBOOKS"
253 - MEAT PACKING INDUSTRY
special techniques of slaughtering; methods of preservation (e.g., drying, smoking, refrigeration); special equipment and apparatus; specialized personnel; organization and regulation of the meat packing industry; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MEAT PACKING INDUSTRY"
254 - REFRIGERATION INDUSTRY
ice harvesting and manufacture; specialized production of refrigerated fruits and vegetables; ice cream manufacture; cold storage plants; technology and equipment; personnel and organization; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "REFRIGERATION INDUSTRY"
255 - CANNING INDUSTRY
industrialized processing of meat, fish, and vegetable foods in air-tight containers (e.g., cans, jars, bottles); canneries, special factories, and their equipment; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CANNING INDUSTRY"
256 - CEREAL INDUSTRY
industrialized processing of cereal products (e.g., flour, starch, breakfast foods); storage facilities (e.g., grain elevators); mills and bakeries; technology and special equipment; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CEREAL INDUSTRY"
257 - CONFECTIONERY INDUSTRIES
industrialized processing of sweet condiments and confections (e.g., sugar, honey, syrup, jam, candy, chewing gum); materials, techniques, and equipment; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CONFECTIONERY INDUSTRIES"
258 - MISCELLANEOUS FOOD PROCESSING AND PACKING INDUSTRIES
special-processing of foods and nutrients not classifiable under the foregoing categories (e.g., salt, dried and powdered foods, vinegar, edible oils, vitamins); food packaging in paper or miscellaneous containers; special materials, techniques, and equipment; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MISCELLANEOUS FOOD PROCESSING AND PACKING INDUSTRIES"
26 - FOOD CONSUMPTION
general statements covering various aspects pertaining directly to the eating of food.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FOOD CONSUMPTION"
261 - GRATIFICATION AND CONTROL OF HUNGER
ideas about food and ingestion; eating sparingly or to excess; attitudes toward wasting food; special adjustments to hunger or famine; dieting; cultural elaboration of food appetites (e.g., geophagy, gum chewing, epicures); etc.
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262 - DIET
staple and other foods consumed: seasonal changes in diet; proportion of various foods in diet: group differences in diet (e.g., by age, sex, social class); discriminations between edible and harmful foods; food preferences and avoidances; food etc.
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263 - CONDIMENTS
kinds of condiments used in the preparation and consumption of food (e.g., salt, sugar, honey, spices); processing of savory herbs and spices; uses of condiments; etc
> Ergebnisliste zu "CONDIMENTS"
264 - EATING
regularity of eating; informal eating (e.g., between meals, at work or play); meals (e.g., hours, number per day, participation, composition); techniques of eating; table manners; sequels to eating (e.g., disposal of waste and excess food, cleaning of utensils); associated beliefs and practices; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "EATING"
265 - FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRIES
specialized eating establishments restaurants, tea shops, lunchrooms); food carting services; organization and specialized personnel; regulation; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRIES"
266 - CANNIBALISM
prevalence of cannibalism; participants; victims (e.g., captives, felons, slaves, sacrificial victims); parts eaten; occasions; associated beliefs and practices (e.g., sorcery, witchcraft;) etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CANNIBALISM"
27 - DRINK, DRUGS, AND INDULGENCE
general statements covering several aspects of the allaying of thirst and special appetitive cravings, with the manufacture of artificial means of satisfying them, and with the preparation of drugs for other purposes.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DRINK, DRUGS, AND INDULGENCE"
271 - WATER AND THIRST
use of water for drinking; manifestations and control of thirst; ideas and practices related to the drinking of water, etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "WATER AND THIRST"
272 - NONALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES
drinking of nonalcoholic beverages (e.g., tea, coffee, lemonade, milk, blood); special techniques of preparation (boiling, percolating); consumption (e.g. quantities, occasions); food values and physiological effects; drinking etiquette; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "NONALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES"
273 - ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES
types of alcoholic beverages used (e.g., beer, wine, spirits); techniques of preparation (e.g., brewing, distilling); apparatus (e.g., stills); consumption (e.g., users, quantities, occasions); drinking etiquette; craving for liquor; prevalence of drunkenness and behavior under intoxication; associated beliefs and practices; social and legal controls; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES"
274 - BEVERAGE INDUSTRIES
industrialized production of beverages (e.g., brewing, wine making, distilling, manufacture of soft drinks); specialized techniques and equipment; organization of labor and production; regulation; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "BEVERAGE INDUSTRIES"
275 - DRINKING ESTABLISHMENTS
specialized dispensers of beverages; types of establishment (e.g., bars, taverns, soft-drink parlors); Services and clientele; special equipment; organization; regulation (e.g., licensing, curfew); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DRINKING ESTABLISHMENTS"
276 - NARCOTICS AND STIMULANTS
drugs consumed for nontherapeutic purposes (e.g., tobacco, betel, coca, peyote); techniques of manufacture and preparation; methods of consumption (e.g., eating, chewing, smoking); special apparatus (e.g., cigarette holders, pipes, hypodermic needles); users; quantities consumed; physiological effects; behavior under narcosis and stimulation; associated beliefs and practices; social and legal controls; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "NARCOTICS AND STIMULANTS"
277 - TOBACCO INDUSTRY
industrialized production of tobacco; specialized techniques and equipment; organization of labor and production; regulation;
> Ergebnisliste zu "TOBACCO INDUSTRY"
278 - PHARMACEUTICAL
Smateria medica and pharmacology; manufacture of narcotics, drugs, and poisons; processing techniques; pro-ducts; organization of labor and production; regulation; specialists (e.g., pharmacists); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PHARMACEUTICAL"
28 - LEATHER, TEXTILES, AND FABRICS
> Ergebnisliste zu "LEATHER, TEXTILES, AND FABRICS"
281 - GRUNDLAGEN
> Ergebnisliste zu "GRUNDLAGEN"
281.1 - Hand- und Lehrbücher, Systematiken, Handarbeitsbücher etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "Hand- und Lehrbücher, Systematiken, Handarbeitsbücher etc."
281.2 - Bibliographien
> Ergebnisliste zu "Bibliographien"
281.3 - Geschichte
> Ergebnisliste zu "Geschichte"
281.31 - Allgemeine Übersichten Textilien, Textiltechniken
> Ergebnisliste zu "Allgemeine Übersichten Textilien, Textiltechniken"
281.32 - Baumwolle
> Ergebnisliste zu "Baumwolle"
281.33 - Seide
> Ergebnisliste zu "Seide"
281.34 - Wolle
> Ergebnisliste zu "Wolle"
281.35 - Leinen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Leinen"
281.4 - Vergleichende Studien
> Ergebnisliste zu "Vergleichende Studien"
281.5 - Textil-Mikroskopie
> Ergebnisliste zu "Textil-Mikroskopie"
281.6 - Textil-Restaurierung und –Konservierung
> Ergebnisliste zu "Textil-Restaurierung und –Konservierung"
281.7 - Archäologie
> Ergebnisliste zu "Archäologie"
281.8 - Terminologie
> Ergebnisliste zu "Terminologie"
281.9 - Muster, Symbolik, Ornamente
> Ergebnisliste zu "Muster, Symbolik, Ornamente"
282 - ROHMATERIALIEN ZUR STOFFBILDUNG UND STOFFÄRBUNG. GEWINNUNG UND AUFBEREITUNG
> Ergebnisliste zu "ROHMATERIALIEN ZUR STOFFBILDUNG UND STOFFÄRBUNG. GEWINNUNG UND AUFBEREITUNG"
282.1 - Pflanzliche Rohmaterialien
> Ergebnisliste zu "Pflanzliche Rohmaterialien"
282.11 - Fasern
> Ergebnisliste zu "Fasern"
282.111 - Stengelfasern (Flachs etc.)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Stengelfasern (Flachs etc.)"
282.112 - Blattfasern (Palmfasern etc.)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Blattfasern (Palmfasern etc.)"
282.113 - Samenhaare (Baumwolle, Kapok etc.)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Samenhaare (Baumwolle, Kapok etc.)"
282.114 - Fruchtfasern (Kokosfasern etc.)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Fruchtfasern (Kokosfasern etc.)"
282.115 - Rindbast
> Ergebnisliste zu "Rindbast"
282.12 - Farbstoffe
> Ergebnisliste zu "Farbstoffe"
282.121 - Indigo
> Ergebnisliste zu "Indigo"
282.122 - Krapp
> Ergebnisliste zu "Krapp"
282.2 - Tierische und menschliche Rohmaterialien
> Ergebnisliste zu "Tierische und menschliche Rohmaterialien"
282.21 - Fasern
> Ergebnisliste zu "Fasern"
282.211 - Haare
> Ergebnisliste zu "Haare"
282.212 - Seide
> Ergebnisliste zu "Seide"
282.213 - Wolle
> Ergebnisliste zu "Wolle"
282.214 - Federn
> Ergebnisliste zu "Federn"
282.22 - Farbstoffe
> Ergebnisliste zu "Farbstoffe"
282.221 - Kermes
> Ergebnisliste zu "Kermes"
282.222 - Lac Dye
> Ergebnisliste zu "Lac Dye"
282.223 - Cochenille
> Ergebnisliste zu "Cochenille"
282.224 - Purpur
> Ergebnisliste zu "Purpur"
282.3 - Mineralische Rohmaterialien
> Ergebnisliste zu "Mineralische Rohmaterialien"
282.31 - Faden-Elemente
> Ergebnisliste zu "Faden-Elemente"
282.311 - Silber- und Goldlamellen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Silber- und Goldlamellen"
282.312 - Silber- und Golddrähte
> Ergebnisliste zu "Silber- und Golddrähte"
282.313 - Glasfasern
> Ergebnisliste zu "Glasfasern"
282.314 - Asbestfasern
> Ergebnisliste zu "Asbestfasern"
282.32 - Farbstoffe
> Ergebnisliste zu "Farbstoffe"
282.321 - Ockererde
> Ergebnisliste zu "Ockererde"
282.4 - Synthetische Rohmaterialien
> Ergebnisliste zu "Synthetische Rohmaterialien"
283 - TECHNIKEN DER STOFFBILDUNG
> Ergebnisliste zu "TECHNIKEN DER STOFFBILDUNG"
283.1 - Techniken zur herstellung von fadenlosen Stoffen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Techniken zur herstellung von fadenlosen Stoffen"
283.11 - Rindenbaststoffe
> Ergebnisliste zu "Rindenbaststoffe"
283.12 - Leder und Fell
> Ergebnisliste zu "Leder und Fell"
283.13 - Echter Filz
> Ergebnisliste zu "Echter Filz"
283.14 - Papier
> Ergebnisliste zu "Papier"
283.2 - Fadenbildende Techniken
> Ergebnisliste zu "Fadenbildende Techniken"
283.21 - Herstellung von Fäden
> Ergebnisliste zu "Herstellung von Fäden"
283.211 - Verknüpfen kurzer Fäden
> Ergebnisliste zu "Verknüpfen kurzer Fäden"
283.212 - Drillen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Drillen"
283.213 - Abhaspeln von Fäden erhelblicher Länge (z.B. Seide)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Abhaspeln von Fäden erhelblicher Länge (z.B. Seide)"
283.214 - Spinnen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Spinnen"
283.215 - Ziehen von Metallfäden
> Ergebnisliste zu "Ziehen von Metallfäden"
283.22 - Verstärken und Verzieren von Fäden
> Ergebnisliste zu "Verstärken und Verzieren von Fäden"
283.221 - Zwirnen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Zwirnen"
283.222 - Flechten
> Ergebnisliste zu "Flechten"
283.223 - Häkeln und Stricken
> Ergebnisliste zu "Häkeln und Stricken"
283.224 - Gimpen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Gimpen"
283.225 - Jaspieren
> Ergebnisliste zu "Jaspieren"
283.23 - Geräte zur Fadenherstellung
> Ergebnisliste zu "Geräte zur Fadenherstellung"
283.231 - Spindeln
> Ergebnisliste zu "Spindeln"
283.232 - Spinnräder
> Ergebnisliste zu "Spinnräder"
283.233 - Spinnrocken
> Ergebnisliste zu "Spinnrocken"
283.234 - Spulen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Spulen"
283.235 - Haspel
> Ergebnisliste zu "Haspel"
283.236 - Winden (Strangherstellung)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Winden (Strangherstellung)"
283.3 - Primäre stoffbildende Techniken
> Ergebnisliste zu "Primäre stoffbildende Techniken"
283.31 - Stoffbildung mit einem fortlaufenden Faden (Maschenstoffe)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Stoffbildung mit einem fortlaufenden Faden (Maschenstoffe)"
283.311 - Maschenstoffbildung mit fortlaufendem Faden begrenzter Länge
> Ergebnisliste zu "Maschenstoffbildung mit fortlaufendem Faden begrenzter Länge"
283.311.1 - Einhängen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Einhängen"
283.311.2 - Verschlingen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Verschlingen"
283.311.3 - Verknoten
> Ergebnisliste zu "Verknoten"
283.311.4 - Maschenstoff-Spitzen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Maschenstoff-Spitzen"
283.312 - Maschenstoffbildung mit fortlaufendem Faden beliebiger Länge
> Ergebnisliste zu "Maschenstoffbildung mit fortlaufendem Faden beliebiger Länge"
283.312.1 - Häkeln
> Ergebnisliste zu "Häkeln"
283.312.2 - Stricken
> Ergebnisliste zu "Stricken"
283.313 - Übergangsformen zur Flechterei: Flechtknoten
> Ergebnisliste zu "Übergangsformen zur Flechterei: Flechtknoten"
283.32 - Stoffbildung mit Fadensystemen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Stoffbildung mit Fadensystemen"
283.321 - Halbflechten
> Ergebnisliste zu "Halbflechten"
283.321.1 - Durchstechen des einen Systems
> Ergebnisliste zu "Durchstechen des einen Systems"
283.321.2 - Wickeln
> Ergebnisliste zu "Wickeln"
283.321.3 - Binden
> Ergebnisliste zu "Binden"
283.321.4 - Wulsthalbflechten
> Ergebnisliste zu "Wulsthalbflechten"
283.321.5 - Zwirnbinden
> Ergebnisliste zu "Zwirnbinden"
283.322 - Übergang zum Flechten und zu höheren stoffbildenden Techniken
> Ergebnisliste zu "Übergang zum Flechten und zu höheren stoffbildenden Techniken"
283.323 - Echtes Flechten
> Ergebnisliste zu "Echtes Flechten"
283.323.1 - Flechten in zwei Richtungen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Flechten in zwei Richtungen"
283.323.11 - Diagonal
> Ergebnisliste zu "Diagonal"
283.323.12 - Randparallel
> Ergebnisliste zu "Randparallel"
283.323.13 - Zopf- und Schlauchflechten
> Ergebnisliste zu "Zopf- und Schlauchflechten"
283.323.14 - Klöppelartige Verfahren, Ply-Splitting
> Ergebnisliste zu "Klöppelartige Verfahren, Ply-Splitting"
283.323.15 - Macramé
> Ergebnisliste zu "Macramé"
283.323.2 - Flechten in drei und mehr Richtungen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Flechten in drei und mehr Richtungen"
283.324 - Geräte
> Ergebnisliste zu "Geräte"
283.4 - Höhere stoffbildende Techniken
> Ergebnisliste zu "Höhere stoffbildende Techniken"
283.41 - Kettenstoff-Verfahren
> Ergebnisliste zu "Kettenstoff-Verfahren"
283.411 - Stoffbildung mit passiver Kette
> Ergebnisliste zu "Stoffbildung mit passiver Kette"
283.411.1 - Soumakartige Kettenstoffbildung
> Ergebnisliste zu "Soumakartige Kettenstoffbildung"
283.411.2 - Zwirnbindige Kettenstoffbildung (Zwirnbinden des Eintrags)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Zwirnbindige Kettenstoffbildung (Zwirnbinden des Eintrags)"
283.411.3 - Kettenflechten
> Ergebnisliste zu "Kettenflechten"
283.411.4 - Wirken
> Ergebnisliste zu "Wirken"
283.411.5 - Partialstoffe
> Ergebnisliste zu "Partialstoffe"
283.412 - Stoffbildung mit aktiver Kette
> Ergebnisliste zu "Stoffbildung mit aktiver Kette"
283.412.1 - Sprang
> Ergebnisliste zu "Sprang"
283.412.2 - Zwirnbinden der Kette
> Ergebnisliste zu "Zwirnbinden der Kette"
283.413 - Halbweben
> Ergebnisliste zu "Halbweben"
283.42 - Weberei
> Ergebnisliste zu "Weberei"
283.421 - Formen der Weberei
> Ergebnisliste zu "Formen der Weberei"
283.421.1 - Litzenstabweberei
> Ergebnisliste zu "Litzenstabweberei"
283.421.2 - Brettchenweberei
> Ergebnisliste zu "Brettchenweberei"
283.421.3 - Gitterweberei
> Ergebnisliste zu "Gitterweberei"
283.422 - Webgeräte
> Ergebnisliste zu "Webgeräte"
283.422.1 - Webegitter
> Ergebnisliste zu "Webegitter"
283.422.2 - Brettchenwebgeräte
> Ergebnisliste zu "Brettchenwebgeräte"
283.422.3 - Vertikale Webgeräte
> Ergebnisliste zu "Vertikale Webgeräte"
283.422.31 - Gewichtwebgeräte
> Ergebnisliste zu "Gewichtwebgeräte"
283.422.32 - Gobelin-Webgeräte (Wirkerei-Webgeräte)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Gobelin-Webgeräte (Wirkerei-Webgeräte)"
283.422.33 - Andere vertikale Litzenstab-Webgeräte
> Ergebnisliste zu "Andere vertikale Litzenstab-Webgeräte"
283.422.4 - Horizontale Webgeräte
> Ergebnisliste zu "Horizontale Webgeräte"
283.422.41 - Liegendes horizontales Webgerät
> Ergebnisliste zu "Liegendes horizontales Webgerät"
283.422.42 - Horizontales Webgerät mit Rückengürtel oder –Joch
> Ergebnisliste zu "Horizontales Webgerät mit Rückengürtel oder –Joch"
283.422.43 - Tritt-und Schaftwebstühle
> Ergebnisliste zu "Tritt-und Schaftwebstühle"
283.422.44 - Maschinen-Webstühle
> Ergebnisliste zu "Maschinen-Webstühle"
283.423 - Zusätzliche Web-Bestandteile
> Ergebnisliste zu "Zusätzliche Web-Bestandteile"
283.423.1 - Webschiffchen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Webschiffchen"
283.423.2 - Eintragstäbe
> Ergebnisliste zu "Eintragstäbe"
283.423.3 - Kämme
> Ergebnisliste zu "Kämme"
283.43 - Webbindung
> Ergebnisliste zu "Webbindung"
283.431 - Grundbindungen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Grundbindungen"
283.431.1 - Leinwandbindungen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Leinwandbindungen"
283.431.2 - Köperbindungen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Köperbindungen"
283.431.3 - Atlas- oder Satinbindungen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Atlas- oder Satinbindungen"
283.432 - Abgeleitete Bindungen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Abgeleitete Bindungen"
283.432.1 - Bindungen mit musterbildender Kette oder Eintrag
> Ergebnisliste zu "Bindungen mit musterbildender Kette oder Eintrag"
283.432.2 - Bindungen mit doppelter oder mehrfacher Führung von Kette und Eintrag (Doppelgewebe)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Bindungen mit doppelter oder mehrfacher Führung von Kette und Eintrag (Doppelgewebe)"
283.432.3 - Bindungen mit zusätzlichen Zierfäden in Kette oder Eintrag (Lancierung, Broschierung etc.)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Bindungen mit zusätzlichen Zierfäden in Kette oder Eintrag (Lancierung, Broschierung etc.)"
283.432.4 - Dreherbindungen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Dreherbindungen"
283.433 - Zusammengesetzte Bindungen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Zusammengesetzte Bindungen"
283.5 - Stoffverzierung durch zusätzliche Elemente während der Stoffbildung
> Ergebnisliste zu "Stoffverzierung durch zusätzliche Elemente während der Stoffbildung"
283.51 - Vliesbildung auf Maschenstoffgrundlage
> Ergebnisliste zu "Vliesbildung auf Maschenstoffgrundlage"
283.52 - Vliesbildung auf Grundlage von Fadensystemen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Vliesbildung auf Grundlage von Fadensystemen"
283.521 - Vliesbildung in Verbindung mit Halbflechten
> Ergebnisliste zu "Vliesbildung in Verbindung mit Halbflechten"
283.522 - Wirkereiartige Vliesbildung (Teppichknüpfen)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Wirkereiartige Vliesbildung (Teppichknüpfen)"
283.523 - Vliesbildung in Webverfahren (Samt)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Vliesbildung in Webverfahren (Samt)"
283.53 - Bildung von Perlenstoffen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Bildung von Perlenstoffen"
283.531 - Durch Bindung der Grundelemente
> Ergebnisliste zu "Durch Bindung der Grundelemente"
283.531.1 - In Maschenstofftechnik
> Ergebnisliste zu "In Maschenstofftechnik"
283.531.2 - Mit Fadensystemen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Mit Fadensystemen"
283.531.4 - Durch Weben
> Ergebnisliste zu "Durch Weben"
283.532 - Durch Bindung der Perlen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Durch Bindung der Perlen"
283.532.1 - Mit einem fortlaufenden Faden
> Ergebnisliste zu "Mit einem fortlaufenden Faden"
283.532.2 - Mit Fadensystemen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Mit Fadensystemen"
283.6 - Abgeleitete stoffverzierende Techniken: Bildung von Randabschlüssen und Fransen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Abgeleitete stoffverzierende Techniken: Bildung von Randabschlüssen und Fransen"
283.61 - Randabschlüsse ohne Fransenbildung
> Ergebnisliste zu "Randabschlüsse ohne Fransenbildung"
283.611 - Bildung von Randabschlüssen in Maschenstofftechnik
> Ergebnisliste zu "Bildung von Randabschlüssen in Maschenstofftechnik"
283.612 - Bildung von Randabschlüssen mit Fadensystemen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Bildung von Randabschlüssen mit Fadensystemen"
283.613 - Gewobene Randabschlüsse
> Ergebnisliste zu "Gewobene Randabschlüsse"
283.614 - Genähte und gestickte Randabschlüsse
> Ergebnisliste zu "Genähte und gestickte Randabschlüsse"
283.615 - Gedrillte und verzwirnte Randabschlüsse
> Ergebnisliste zu "Gedrillte und verzwirnte Randabschlüsse"
283.616 - Kombinierte Randabschlüsse
> Ergebnisliste zu "Kombinierte Randabschlüsse"
283.62 - Randabschlüsse mit Fransenbildung
> Ergebnisliste zu "Randabschlüsse mit Fransenbildung"
283.621 - Einfache Fransenbildung
> Ergebnisliste zu "Einfache Fransenbildung"
283.622 - Komplizierte Fransenbildung in Maschenstofftechnik
> Ergebnisliste zu "Komplizierte Fransenbildung in Maschenstofftechnik"
283.623 - Komplizierte Fransenbildung mit Fadensystemen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Komplizierte Fransenbildung mit Fadensystemen"
283.7 - Echte Verzierungsformen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Echte Verzierungsformen"
283.71 - Stoffverzierung mit festem Material
> Ergebnisliste zu "Stoffverzierung mit festem Material"
283.711 - Applikations-Techniken
> Ergebnisliste zu "Applikations-Techniken"
283.711.1 - Aufnähen von Stoffstücken
> Ergebnisliste zu "Aufnähen von Stoffstücken"
283.711.2 - Zusammennähen von Stofflagen (Steppen/Quilten)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Zusammennähen von Stofflagen (Steppen/Quilten)"
283.711.3 - Aufnähen von Perlen, Haaren, Schnüren etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "Aufnähen von Perlen, Haaren, Schnüren etc."
283.712 - Stickereiartige Verfahren
> Ergebnisliste zu "Stickereiartige Verfahren"
283.712.1 - Stickerei
> Ergebnisliste zu "Stickerei"
283.712.2 - Ziernähte
> Ergebnisliste zu "Ziernähte"
283.712.3 - Smok
> Ergebnisliste zu "Smok"
283.712.4 - Stickereiartige Verzierung von Netzgründen (auch Spitzen)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Stickereiartige Verzierung von Netzgründen (auch Spitzen)"
283.713 - Durchbrucharbeiten
> Ergebnisliste zu "Durchbrucharbeiten"
283.72 - Stoffverzierung mit flüssigem Material
> Ergebnisliste zu "Stoffverzierung mit flüssigem Material"
283.721 - Direkte Musterung
> Ergebnisliste zu "Direkte Musterung"
283.721.1 - Übergangsformen: Auftragen trockener Substanzen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Übergangsformen: Auftragen trockener Substanzen"
283.721.2 - Bemalen mit flüssiger Farbe
> Ergebnisliste zu "Bemalen mit flüssiger Farbe"
283.721.3 - Stoffdruck (mit Stempeln etc.)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Stoffdruck (mit Stempeln etc.)"
283.721.4 - Tauchverfahren
> Ergebnisliste zu "Tauchverfahren"
283.722 - Indirekte Musterung (Reserveverfahren)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Indirekte Musterung (Reserveverfahren)"
283.722.1 - Abdecken bestimmter Stoffteile vor der Färbung
> Ergebnisliste zu "Abdecken bestimmter Stoffteile vor der Färbung"
283.722.11 - Nähen (Tritik)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Nähen (Tritik)"
283.722.12 - Falten
> Ergebnisliste zu "Falten"
283.722.13 - Umwickeln
> Ergebnisliste zu "Umwickeln"
283.722.14 - Abbinden (Plangi)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Abbinden (Plangi)"
283.722.15 - Schablonieren
> Ergebnisliste zu "Schablonieren"
283.722.16 - Pastenförmiges oder flüssiges Material (Batik, batikartige Verfahren, Reservedruck)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Pastenförmiges oder flüssiges Material (Batik, batikartige Verfahren, Reservedruck)"
283.722.17 - Stellenweises Behandeln mit Beizen (Negativreservierung)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Stellenweises Behandeln mit Beizen (Negativreservierung)"
283.722.2 - Abdecken bestimmter Garnteile vor der Färbung und vor dem Weben (Kett-, Eintrag-, Doppel- und kombierter Ikat)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Abdecken bestimmter Garnteile vor der Färbung und vor dem Weben (Kett-, Eintrag-, Doppel- und kombierter Ikat)"
283.722.3 - Kombinierte Reserveverfahren
> Ergebnisliste zu "Kombinierte Reserveverfahren"
283.8 - Stoff-Verarbeitung
> Ergebnisliste zu "Stoff-Verarbeitung"
283.81 - Stoffzusammensetzung mit Hilfe von stoffbildenden Techniken („Entre-deux“)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Stoffzusammensetzung mit Hilfe von stoffbildenden Techniken („Entre-deux“)"
283.82 - Echte Stoffbildende Techniken
> Ergebnisliste zu "Echte Stoffbildende Techniken"
283.821 - Heften
> Ergebnisliste zu "Heften"
283.822 - Zusammenknüpfen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Zusammenknüpfen"
283.823 - Nähen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Nähen"
283.824 - Sticken
> Ergebnisliste zu "Sticken"
283.825 - Verriegeln
> Ergebnisliste zu "Verriegeln"
283.826 - Verschliessen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Verschliessen"
283.83 - Behandlung der Stoffoberfläche
> Ergebnisliste zu "Behandlung der Stoffoberfläche"
283.831 - Verfilzen, Aufrauhen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Verfilzen, Aufrauhen"
283.832 - Appretieren, Stärken, Wachsen, Kalandrieren, Glätten etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "Appretieren, Stärken, Wachsen, Kalandrieren, Glätten etc."
284 - BESONDERE STOFFARTEN
> Ergebnisliste zu "BESONDERE STOFFARTEN"
284.c Chintz - Chintz
> Ergebnisliste zu "Chintz"
284.c Drachengewänder - Drachengewänder
> Ergebnisliste zu "Drachengewänder"
284.c k'o-ssu - K’o-ssu
> Ergebnisliste zu "K’o-ssu"
284.c Kalamkari - Kalamkari
> Ergebnisliste zu "Kalamkari"
284.c Kashmir shawls - Kashmir shawls
> Ergebnisliste zu "Kashmir shawls"
284.c Kelim - Kelim
> Ergebnisliste zu "Kelim"
284.c Kirchengewänder - Kirchengewänder
> Ergebnisliste zu "Kirchengewänder"
284.c moderne Textilkunst - Moderne Textilkunst
> Ergebnisliste zu "Moderne Textilkunst"
284.v morderne Textilkunst - Moderne Textilkunst (Volkskunde)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Moderne Textilkunst (Volkskunde)"
284.c Patola - Patola
> Ergebnisliste zu "Patola"
284.c Quilts - Quilts
> Ergebnisliste zu "Quilts"
284.c Spitzen - Spitzen
> Ergebnisliste zu "Spitzen"
284.c Susani - Susani
> Ergebnisliste zu "Susani"
284.c Teppiche - Teppiche
> Ergebnisliste zu "Teppiche"
284.v Teppiche - Teppiche (Volkskunde)
> Ergebnisliste zu "Teppiche (Volkskunde)"
284.c Tirâz - Tirâz
> Ergebnisliste zu "Tirâz"
284.c Türkischrotartikel - Türkischrotartikel
> Ergebnisliste zu "Türkischrotartikel"
288 - TEXTILE INDUSTRIES
industrialized production of textile products; cotton, woolen, silk, and rayon mills; cordage manufacture; specialized techniques and apparatus; economic importance of and self-sufficiency in textile manufacture; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "TEXTILE INDUSTRIES"
29 - CLOTHING
general statements covering several aspects of the manufacture, description, use, and care of wearing apparel.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CLOTHING"
291 - NORMAL GARB
nude and covered parts of body; services of clothing (e.g., protection, vanity, modesty); standard costume; age and sex differences; seasonal variations; styles and fashions; description of individual garments; means of attachment and suspension (e.g., belt); headbands; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "NORMAL GARB"
292 - SPECIAL GARMENTS
clothing of special occasions (e.g., festive apparel, rain gear, bathing costumes); headgear and footwear not ordinarily worn; costumes associated with special statuses and activities; special methods of wearing garments; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SPECIAL GARMENTS"
293 - PARAPHERNALIA
dress accessories (e.g., fans, special paraphernalia and regalia); protective apparatus (e.g., umbrellas, goggles), etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PARAPHERNALIA"
294 - CLOTHING MANUFACTURE
techniques of manufacture (e.g., cutting, fitting, sewing); special treatment of particular materials and products (e.g., shoemaking, hat manufacture); decoration (e.g., embroidery); use of special implements and apparatus (e.g., sewing machines); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CLOTHING MANUFACTURE"
295 - SPECIAL CLOTHING INDUSTRIES
industrialized production of shoes and hats; readymade garment industries; industrial manufacture of underwear, hose, shirts, gloves, and furs; specialized techniques and equipment; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SPECIAL CLOTHING INDUSTRIES"
296 - GARMENT CARE
methods of laundering clothes; repair techniques (e.g., darning, patching); special care and preservation of clothing (e.g., drying, snow removal, waterproofing, storage); organized services (e.g., laundries, dry-cleaning and pressing establishments, shoe-shining and repairing specialists); special techniques and apparatus; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "GARMENT CARE"
30 - ADORNMENT
general statements dealing with several aspects of methods of adorning the body other than by the wearing of clothing, and with the manufacture of the means of adornment.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ADORNMENT"
301 - ORNAMENT
types of ornament worn (e.g., necklaces, bracelets, rings, anklets, earrings, labrets, hair ornaments); mode of attachment or suspension; age, sex, and status differences; materials and manufacture; occasions of use; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ORNAMENT"
302 - TOILET
shaving and depilation; hair styles (e.g., cutting, parting, arranging); care of the hair (e.g., washing, brushing); care of the nails (e.g., cutting, filing); body painting; use of cosmetics, ointments and perfumes; age, sex, and status differences in toilet; associated beliefs and practices; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "TOILET"
303 - MANUFACTURE OF TOILET ACCESSORIES
preparation of cosmetics, ointments, and perfumes; production of toilet articles (e.g., compacts); special apparatus; organization of labor and production; specialists; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MANUFACTURE OF TOILET ACCESSORIES"
304 - MUTILATION
scarification and tattooing; cranial deformations; tooth filing and removal; piercing of ears, nose, and lips; genital mutilation (e.g., castration, circumcision, clitori-dectomy); age, sex, and status differences; special techniques and apparatus; associated beliefs; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MUTILATION"
305 - BEAUTY SPECIALISTS
barbers and hairdressers; manicurists; tattooers; specialized cosmetic services (e.g., beauty salons); special techniques (e.g., shampoos); special apparatus; organization and training; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "BEAUTY SPECIALISTS"
306 - JEWELRY MANUFACTURE
cutting, polishing, and mounting of gems; specialized work in precious metals; lapidary art; manufacture of valuable ornaments and costume jewelry; specialized jewelers; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "JEWELRY MANUFACTURE"
31 - EXPLOITATIVE ACTIVITIES
general statements dealing with several aspects of the extraction from nature of raw materials other than food. Transformation of raw materials into tools, structures, clothing, and other finished products is classified elsewhere.
> Ergebnisliste zu "EXPLOITATIVE ACTIVITIES"
311 - LAND USE
completeness and efficiency with which the potentialities of the land and its resources are utilized: distribution of waste land, forests, pasture, tilled land, and areas of settlement and industrial use; diversification and specialization (e.g., monoculture); trends; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "LAND USE"
312 - SUPPLY
sources of water springs, wells, rainwater catchment); waters with special properties mineral water); waterworks dams, reservoirs, settling basins); transporta-tion of water containers, pipes, aqueducts, canals); irrigation and drainage systems; construction, maintenance, and regulation of water supply systems; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SUPPLY"
313 - LUMBERING
kinds of timber exploited; gathering of firewood; logging operations (e.g., felling, trimming, hauling); techniques and apparatus used; sawmills and pulp mills; economic importance of lumbering; organization of labor and production; forestry science, practices, and policy; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "LUMBERING"
314 - FOREST PRODUCTS
exploitation of forests and other uncultivated areas for products other than timber or food (e.g., gums and resins, rubber, vegetable oils, dyestuffs, medicines, bark, textile fibers, peat); intermediate processing (e.g., refining of palm oil or rubber, production of charcoal); organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FOREST PRODUCTS"
315 - OIL AND GAS WELLS
exploration for oil and natural gas; methods of extraction (e.g., skimming, drilling); use of special apparatus; pipelines, pumping stations, and storage tanks; special pre-cautions against fire and explosion; organization of labor and production; specialized personnel; regulation; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "OIL AND GAS WELLS"
316 - MINING AND QUARRYING
minerals exploited (e.g., flint, coal, iron); methods of extraction; mining engineering; economic importance of mining and quarrying; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MINING AND QUARRYING"
317 - SPECIAL DEPOSITS
minerals sought (e.g., sand, salt, clay, ocher, sulphur, phosphates); methods of extraction; organization of labor and production; utilization products; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SPECIAL DEPOSITS"
318 - ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
extent to which the quality of the physical environment has been altered as the result of human activity; causes, incidence and types of pollution (e.g., air, water, radiation, noise, etc. ); methods of measuring (e.g., indices of pollution); organized attempts to contain or clean up environmental pollution (e.g., oil or chemical spills, litter, etc.); attempts at legal control (e.g., through governmental agencies, laws and regulations, etc.); anti-pollution devices; recycling of waste materials (e.g., cans, bottles, paper, etc.); recycling centers; general statements on the effects of pollution; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY"
32 - PROCESSING OF BASIC MATERIALS
general statements covering several aspects of the technology of converting basic raw materials into finished or semi-finished products. Data on the acquisition of raw materials, descriptions of the finished products, and information on the manufacture of complex artifacts will be classified elsewhere.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PROCESSING OF BASIC MATERIALS"
321 - WORK IN BONE, HORN, AND SHELL
techniques of cutting, drilling, and polishing; treatment of special materials (e.g., ivory, mother-of-pearl, chitin); use of special implements and apparatus; bone, horn, and shell products not elsewhere described; industrial elaborations (e.g., button manufacture); specialized personnel and organization; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "WORK IN BONE, HORN, AND SHELL"
322 - WOODWORKING
methods of seasoning wood; techniques of shaping (e.g. cutting, planing, burning, warping); treatment of special materials coconut, bamboo, gourds, bark); use of special apparatus; finishing techniques (e.g., oiling, lacquering); elaborated woodworking crafts (e.g., cooperage, cabinet making), manufacture of wooden and other furniture; specialized personnel and organization; wooden products not elsewhere described; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "WOODWORKING"
323 - CERAMIC INDUSTRIES
manufacture of pottery and glass; preliminary processing of materials (e.g., cleaning, mixing); shaping (e.g., modeling, use of molds, coiling, blowing); firing; special apparatus (e.g., potter's wheels, kilns); methods of decoration (e.g., glazing, painting, incising); ceramic products not elsewhere described; specialization (e.g., potters, glass blowers); industrially elaborated ceramic manufactures (e.g., bottle making, porcelain manufacture); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CERAMIC INDUSTRIES"
323.1 - CERAMICS AND POTTERY
> Ergebnisliste zu "CERAMICS AND POTTERY"
323.2 - PREHISTORIC AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTTERY
> Ergebnisliste zu "PREHISTORIC AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTTERY"
323.3 - PORCELAIN
> Ergebnisliste zu "PORCELAIN"
323.4 - GLASS; REVERSE GLASS PAINTING
> Ergebnisliste zu "GLASS; REVERSE GLASS PAINTING"
324 - STONE INDUSTRY
methods of shaping stone (e.g., chipping, pecking, grinding); materials used; products not elsewhere described; special stone industries (e.g., carving of tombstones and monuments); specialized personnel and organization; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "STONE INDUSTRY"
325 - METALLURGY
smelting and refining of ores; alloys; methods of casting; hot and cold forging; tempering; soldering; welding; special apparatus (e.g., bellows, anvil); practical and scientific metallurgical knowledge (e.g., the making of wire thread); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "METALLURGY"
326 - SMITHS AND THEIR CRAFTS
nonindustrialized specialization in metallurgical crafts; types of specialists (e.g., blacksmiths, coppersmiths, tinsmiths, silversmiths, goldsmiths, gunsmiths); special skills and services of each; products not elsewhere described; organization (e.g., guilds); social status of smiths; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SMITHS AND THEIR CRAFTS"
327 - IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
industrial production of iron and steel products pig iron, rails, sheet steel, wire); plants iron foundries, blast furnaces, rolling mills); products and their uses; economic importance of and self-sufficiency in iron and steel production; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY"
328 - NONFERROUS METAL INDUSTRIES
industrialized processing of non- ferrous metals aluminum, copper, tin, zinc, silver, gold, mercury); smelting, refining, and ingot production; products and their uses; economic importance of nonferrous metal organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "NONFERROUS METAL INDUSTRIES"
33 - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION
general statements on several topics primarily concerned with the technological skills involved in assembling raw or semi-finished materials to construct buildings and other structures, together with certain business and industrial activities directly related thereto.
> Ergebnisliste zu "BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION"
331 - CONSTRUCTION
civil and structural engineering; construction industries; specialized builders, contractors, and wreckers; organization of labor and production; etc. Data on construction and materials not classifiable under succeeding categories will be filed here.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CONSTRUCTION"
332 - EARTH MOVING
techniques of excavating, grading, and earth removal; use of special implements and apparatus; specialized personnel and organization; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "EARTH MOVING"
333 - MASONRY
laying of bricks and stones; use of mortar; mixing and laying of adobe and concrete; types of construction (e.g., foundations, floors, walls); structural principles (e.g., arch, dome); use of special implements and apparatus (e.g., trowel, hod, cement mixer); specialized personnel and organization; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MASONRY"
334 - STRUCTURAL STEEL WORK
erection and assembly of structural steel elements (e.g., girders, cables); joining techniques (e.g., welding, riveting); products (e.g., bridges, radio towers, skeleton framework of buildings); specialized personnel and organization; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "STRUCTURAL STEEL WORK"
335 - CARPENTRY
special treatment of wooden materials in building construction; techniques of joining (e.g., by mortise and tenon, with nails or screws); structural devices (e.g., struts, king-post); specialized personnel and organization (e.g., carpenters' guilds or unions) etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CARPENTRY"
336 - PLUMBING
laying and fitting of water, gas, and sewer pipe; installation and repair of plumbing fixtures; implements and apparatus; steamfitting; specialized personnel and organization; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PLUMBING"
337 - ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
wiring structures for electricity; installation of electrical fixtures and appliances; special equipment and apparatus; specialized personnel and organization; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION"
338 - MISCELLANEOUS BUILDING TRADES
structural specialists not classifiable under the preceding categories (e.g., plasterers, roofers, painters, paperhangers, glaziers); special techniques, equipment, and services of each; organization; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MISCELLANEOUS BUILDING TRADES"
339 - BUILDING SUPPLIES INDUSTRIES
manufacture of building and construction supplies not elsewhere described (e.g., brick, cement, tile); processors of building materials (e.g., mill work companies, brick yards); suppliers to builders and contractors; business organization of manufacturers, processors, and suppliers of building materials; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "BUILDING SUPPLIES INDUSTRIES"
34 - STRUCTURES
general statements describing several types of structures detailed below. Only purely descriptive information on types of buildings and other structures, as well as data on materials and construction not classifiable under the 33 categories will be filed here. The uses of each type of are described under appropriate headings elsewhere.
> Ergebnisliste zu "STRUCTURES"
341 - ARCHITECTURE
styles of domestic and nondomestic buildings; architectural theory and principles; practice of architecture (e.g., solicitation of business, planning, draftsmanship supervision of construction, fees); specialization (e.g., architects, draftsmen); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ARCHITECTURE"
342 - DWELLINGS
description of residential buildings; seasonal, local and status differences in dwelling types; caves as dwellings; durability and portability of dwellings; mode of construction; adequacy (e.g., for protection from elements, for security, for light and ventilation); typical number of occupants; ceremonies during and after construction; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DWELLINGS"
343 - OUTBUILDINGS
description of domestic nonresidential buildings (e.g., cookhouses, latrines, menstrual lodges, bathhouses, granaries, barns, stables); special characteristics of each; mode of construction; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "OUTBUILDINGS"
344 - PUBLIC STRUCTURES
description of public buildings (e.g., municipal halls, courthouses, prisons and jails, postoffices, hospitals); special characteristics and facilities of each; mode of construction; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PUBLIC STRUCTURES"
345 - RECREATIONAL STRUCTURES
description of clubhouses, theaters, stadiums, gymnasiums; special characteristics and construction of each; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "RECREATIONAL STRUCTURES"
346 - RELIGIOUS AND EDUCATIONAL STRUCTURES
description of shrines, temples, churches, libraries, museums, schools, and other religious and educational structures; special characteristics of each; mode of construction; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "RELIGIOUS AND EDUCATIONAL STRUCTURES"
347 - BUSINESS STRUCTURES
description of office buildings, retail stores, and other business structures; special characteristics of each; mode of construction; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "BUSINESS STRUCTURES"
348 - INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURES
description of factories and other manufacturing plants; special characteristics of each type; mode of construction; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURES"
349 - MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURES
description of structures not classifiable above (e.g., monuments, radio towers, lighthouses, hangers, railway stations); special characteristics of each; mode of construction; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURES"
35 - EQUIPMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS
general statements covering several aspects of the material equipment, care, and upkeep of dwellings and nonresidential buildings. For descriptions of other machines, appliances, tools, utensils, hardware, and apparatus used in buildings see the 40 and 41 categories.
> Ergebnisliste zu "EQUIPMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS"
351 - GROUNDS
house plots and building lots; courtyards; walls, fences, and gates; grading; gardens and ornamental plants; swimming pools; landscape architecture; upkeep of grounds; choice of house site; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "GROUNDS"
352 - FURNITURE
pegs, racks, shelves, and cupboards; description of furniture (chairs, tables, chests, beds, hammocks, headrests; floor covering (e.g., mats, rugs); special uses of furniture; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FURNITURE"
353 - INTERIOR DECORATION AND ARRANGEMENT
painting, carving, and incising of walls and woodwork; screens and draperies; color schemes; furniture arrangement; use of pictures and prints; household shrines and sacred objects; bric-a-brac and d'art; flower arrangement; specialization in interior decoration (e.g., interior decorators); storage of household items; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "INTERIOR DECORATION AND ARRANGEMENT"
354 - HEATING AND LIGHTING EQUIPMENT
systems for the lighting, heating, insulation, ventilating and air-conditioning of buildings; hearths and fireplaces; special lighting equipment (e.g., candles, oil lamps, gas lights, electric lights); special heating appliances (e.g., wood, coal, oil, gas, and electric stoves and furnaces); air-conditioning installations; insulating materials; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "HEATING AND LIGHTING EQUIPMENT"
355 - MISCELLANEOUS BUILDING EQUIPMENT
description of building equipment not classifiable elsewhere (e.g., eaves and drains, fire extinguishers, dumb waiters); special uses of each; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MISCELLANEOUS BUILDING EQUIPMENT"
356 - HOUSEKEEPING
upkeep of dwelling and outbuildings (e.g., painting, repairs); routine indoor chores (e.g., housecleaning, making); use and care of household implements and appliances; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "HOUSEKEEPING"
357 - DOMESTIC SERVICE
prevalence and functional differentiation of household servants (e.g., cooks, butlers, chambermaids, gardeners, chauffeurs, governesses); status and activities of each; arrangements for room and board; wages; hiring and firing: master-servant relationships; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DOMESTIC SERVICE"
358 - MAINTENANCE OF NONDOMESTIC BUILDINGS
upkeep and repair public, business, industrial, religious, educational, and recreational buildings; maintenance activities (e.g., sweeping, cleaning, tending of furnaces); specialized caretakers (e.g., janitors, scrubwomen, chimney sweeps, watchmen); organization of maintenance activities; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MAINTENANCE OF NONDOMESTIC BUILDINGS"
36 - SETTLEMENTS
general statements covering several specific aspects of the physical configuration and material facilities of settlements ranging in size and complexity from a temporary camp to a great metropolis. See Category 369 for characteristics of urban and rural life. The social and political organization of communities and municipalities is described under the 62 and 63 categories. Information on nonmunicipal public utilities, commercial facilities, etc., will be found elsewhere under appropriate headings (e.g., telephone and telegraph, Category 206; water supply, Category 312, etc.).
> Ergebnisliste zu "SETTLEMENTS"
361 - SETTLEMENT PATTERNS
location and distribution of settlements; house census; physical types and descriptions of settlements and the incidence of each (e.g., temporary camp, settled hamlet or village, town, city, urban metropolis); degree of permanence or impermanence; settlement plan; urban ecology (e.g., residential, business, and industrial areas); satellite areas (e.g., suburbs); patterns of settlement growth; zoning; city planning; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SETTLEMENT PATTERNS"
362 - HOUSING
adequacy of housing facilities (e.g., for physical protection, for comfort, for privacy); housing shortages and overcrowding; effects of poverty, war, and natural calamities; public and private housing and slum clearance programs; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "HOUSING"
363 - STREETS AND TRAFFIC
type and plan of settlement paths and streets; paving, gutters, and sidewalks; type and amount of urban traffic (e.g., pedestrians, animals, carts, automobiles, trams); parking and traffic regulations; street maintenance; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "STREETS AND TRAFFIC"
364 - SANITARY FACILITIES
sewerage system; sewage disposal plants; collection and disposal of garbage and waste; street-cleaning services; purification of water; municipal sanitary facilities and regulations; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SANITARY FACILITIES"
365 - PUBLIC UTILITIES
availability of publicly and privately operated municipal utilities (e.g., water system, telephone facilities, bus and tram services, power and light systems); services rendered and the extent of their utilization; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PUBLIC UTILITIES"
366 - COMMERCIAL FACILITIES
availability and location of markets, retail shops, wholesale outlets, warehouses, office buildings, banks, restaurants, hotels, garages, and other business facilities; trading centers and trade areas; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "COMMERCIAL FACILITIES"
367 - PARKS
availability, location, use, and maintenance of municipal parks, playgrounds, and athletic fields; zoological and botanical gardens location, support, operation, use); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PARKS"
368 - MISCELLANEOUS FACILITIES
fire protection services (e.g., fighting apparatus and equipment, specialized personnel); availability and location of piers, railway stations, airports and bus terminals; availability and location of religious, educational, recreational and administrative facilities (e.g., churches, temples, city halls, schools, libraries, police stations, museums, theaters, opera houses, art galleries, gymnasiums, public baths, clubhouses); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MISCELLANEOUS FACILITIES"
369 - URBAN AND RURAL LIFE
degree of differentiation of rural, town, and urban modes of life; characteristics of each and contrasts between them; effects of urbanization upon social institutions; trends in urban development; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "URBAN AND RURAL LIFE"
369.1 - URBANIZATION
urban anthropology; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "URBANIZATION"
369.2 - RURAL LIFE
> Ergebnisliste zu "RURAL LIFE"
37 - ENERGY AND POWER
general statements dealing with several aspects of the utilization of the sources of energy in nature and with the transformation of such energies into industrial power. For the mechanical devices by which power is translated into work see the 40 categories. For human labor see the 46 categories.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ENERGY AND POWER"
371 - POWER DEVELOPMENT
sources of energy utilized and not utilized; potential and developed power resources; public and private programs of power development; etc. For the utilization and development of specific power resources see the remainder of the 37 categories below.
> Ergebnisliste zu "POWER DEVELOPMENT"
372 - FIRE
generation of fire; techniques and apparatus (e.g., fire plow, fire drill, flint and steel, fire piston, matches); borrowing, preservation, and transportation of fire; tinder and kindling; fuels; uses of fire; beliefs about fire and associated practices; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FIRE"
373 - LIGHT
sources of light; methods of producing light; practical and scientific knowledge about lighting; uses of light; outdoor lighting systems (e.g., street lighting); beliefs about light; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "LIGHT"
374 - HEAT
sources of heat; methods of producing and heat; beliefs about heat and cold; practical and scientific knowledge about heat; uses of heat; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "HEAT"
375 - THERMAL POWER
generation of power for industrial purposes through the combustion of fuels; engines (e.g., heat, steam, internal combustion); fuels wood, coal, oil, gas); thermal power plants; actual and potential output of thermal power; specialized personnel; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "THERMAL POWER"
376 - WATER POWER
generation of industrial power by harnessing the energy of flowing or falling water; hydraulic engines (e.g., rams, water wheels, turbines); special installations and facilities tidal installations); actual and potential output of water power; specialized personnel (e.g., hydraulic engineers); organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "WATER POWER"
377 - ELECTRIC POWER
conversion of other energies into electricity; electrical generators; electric power plants; special installations and apparatus; methods of storage and transmission; electrical engineering; actual and potential output of electric power; specialized personnel; organization of labor and production; regulation; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ELECTRIC POWER"
378 - ATOMIC ENERGY
generation of power through nuclear fission and fusion; materials used; special installations and apparatus; actual and potential output of atomic power; specialized personnel; organization of labor and production; regulation; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ATOMIC ENERGY"
379 - MISCELLANEOUS POWER PRODUCTION
special utilization of sources of power not classifiable under previous categories (e.g., human and animal energies, wind power, solar radiation); special apparatus (e.g., treadmills, windmills, rotor engines, solar radiation plants); specialization and organization; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MISCELLANEOUS POWER PRODUCTION"
38 - CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES
general statements dealing with several aspects of the processing of raw materials in a series of industries where the technology is primarily chemical rather than physical.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES"
381 - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
industrial chemistry; research laboratories, equipment, and techniques; specialized personnel (e.g., technicians, engineers); special chemical industries not classifiable in the succeeding categories (e.g., adhesive manufacture) including products and their uses; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CHEMICAL ENGINEERING"
382 - PETROLEUM AND COAL PRODUCTS INDUSTRIES
refining and processing of petroleum; manufacture of coal products (e.g., illuminating gas, coal tar); use of special apparatus and machinery; processing techniques; products and their uses; economic importance of petroleum and coal products industries; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PETROLEUM AND COAL PRODUCTS INDUSTRIES"
383 - RUBBER INDUSTRY
processing of natural rubber; refining techniques; methods of shaping and molding; products and their uses (e.g., rubber balls, syringes, automobile tires); organization of labor and production; synthetic rubber industry; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "RUBBER INDUSTRY"
384 - SYNTHETICS INDUSTRY
manufacture of plastics and other synthetic products; materials used; processing techniques and apparatus; products and their uses; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SYNTHETICS INDUSTRY"
385 - INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS
production of acids, bases, and other industrial chemicals; materials used; processes of manufacture; special techniques and apparatus; products and their uses; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS"
386 - PAINT AND DYE MANUFACTURE
paints, dyes, and pigments; materials used in their manufacture; techniques; special equipment; products and their uses (e.g., aniline dyes, ink, art supplies); organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PAINT AND DYE MANUFACTURE"
387 - FERTILIZER INDUSTRY
manufacture of agricultural fertilizers; specialized techniques and equipment; materials and products; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FERTILIZER INDUSTRY"
388 - SOAP AND ALLIED PRODUCTS
manufacture of soap, detergents, and other oil and fat products (e.g., candles); materials used; specialized techniques and apparatus; products and their uses; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SOAP AND ALLIED PRODUCTS"
389 - MANUFACTURE OF EXPLOSIVES
gunpowder, nitroglycerin, and other explosives; materials used; processing techniques and equipment; products and their uses (e.g., fireworks, dynamite, ammunition); manufacturing plants; organization of labor and production; etc. See, also:
> Ergebnisliste zu "MANUFACTURE OF EXPLOSIVES"
39 - CAPITAL GOODS INDUSTRIES
general statements dealing with several aspects of the manufacturing processes which produce tools and machines, and with their technological and economic organization. Descriptions of the specific artifacts used in or produced by these industries will be classified under other headings.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CAPITAL GOODS INDUSTRIES"
391 - HARDWARE MANUFACTURE
production agricultural, industrial, and other tools; manufacture of cooking and eating implements and utensils (e.g., cutlery, kitchen utensils); manufacture of construction hardware (e.g., nails, wire, bolts, pipe, fixtures); manufacture of fishing tackle; industrial specialization; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "HARDWARE MANUFACTURE"
392 - MACHINE INDUSTRIES
machine shops; industrial manufacture of all types of machines and complex mechanical appliances other then those operated by electricity and those employed in transportation, heating, lighting, and photography; industrial specialization; economic importance of and self-sufficiency in machine industries; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MACHINE INDUSTRIES"
393 - ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES INDUSTRY
construction of electric motors, generators, and transformers; manufacture of electrical equipment (e.g., wiring, insulation, connections, coils, batteries); production of electrical appliances; industrialization; manufacture of electronic equipment; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES INDUSTRY"
394 - MANUFACTURE OF HEATING AND LIGHTING APPLIANCES
manufacture of stoves, furnaces, bakery equipment, and other nonelectrical heating appliances; production of ice-making machinery; manufacture of heat-regulating appliances (e.g., incubators, refrigerators, air-conditioning apparatus); manufacture of lamps and other nonelectric lighting appliances; industrial specialization; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MANUFACTURE OF HEATING AND LIGHTING APPLIANCES"
395 - MANUFACTURE OF OPTICAL AND PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT
lens-grinding; manufacture of optical instruments and supplies; manufacture of still and motion-picture cameras and projectors; manufacture of photographic equipment and supplies film, developing materials); industrial specialization; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MANUFACTURE OF OPTICAL AND PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT"
396 - SHIPBUILDING
construction and repair of boats, ships, and underwater craft; manufacture of shipbuilding materials and equipment (e.g., marine motors, nautical gear); industrial specialization (e.g., shipyards); organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SHIPBUILDING"
397 - RAILWAY EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY
locomotive works; manufacture of rolling stock; production of railway equipment (e.g., rails, signaling devices, brakes); manufacture of special rail vehicles (e.g., trams); industrial specialization; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "RAILWAY EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY"
398 - MANUFACTURE OF VEHICLES
wagon making; manufacture of bicycles and motorcycles; production of automobiles, trucks, and buses; manufacture of automobile parts and accessories (e.g., engines, bodies, upholstery, instruments); manufacture of automobile servicing equipment; industrial specialization; organization of labor and production (e.g., assembly lines); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MANUFACTURE OF VEHICLES"
399 - AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY
construction of air and space craft; manufacture of airplane parts, accessories, and servicing equipment; industrial specialization; organization of labor and production; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY"
40 - MACHINES
general statements describing several distinct types of machines and complex appliances and with the mechanical knowledge embodied in them. Manufacture of machines is described under Category 392, their use under numerous functional headings.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MACHINES"
401 - MECHANICS
knowledge and utilization of simple machines (e.g., lever, wheel and axle, pulley, inclined plane, wedge, screw); elements utilized in the construction of complex machines (e.g., cam, ratchet, shaft, rack and pinion, chain, belt, ball and socket, valve, piston, governor, bearing); machine designing; mechanical engineering; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MECHANICS"
402 - INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY
power generating machines (e.g., steam engines, turbines, windmills); machine tools (e.g., lathes, planing and stamping machines); typesetting, printing, and bookbinding machines; mining, lumbering, and drilling machinery; stone crushers; pile drivers; milling and refining machinery; spinning and weaving machinery; canning, bottling, and pack-aging machinery; machines for processing leather, paper, chemicals, and other industrial materials; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY"
403 - ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND APPLIANCES
electric motors, generators, and transformers; machines and appliances operated by electric current (e.g., electric fans, electric razors); electrical supplies (e.g., wiring, insulation, connections, batteries); telephone, telegraph, radio, and television equipment and supplies; electrical engineering; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND APPLIANCES"
404 - HOUSEHOLD MACHINES AND APPLIANCES
grinding and mixing machines; sewing machines; laundry appliances (e.g., washing machines, wringers); dishwashing machines; sweeping appliances carpet sweepers); etc.
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405 - WEIGHING, MEASURING, AND RECORDING MACHINES
scales; meters; thermostats; clocks and watches; calculating machines; computers; cash registers; phonographs; sound recorders; typewriters; etc.
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406 - WEIGHT-MOVING MACHINERY
pumps; hoisting machines (e.g., cranes, jacks, elevators); earth-moving machines (e.g., bulldozers, dredges); other weight-moving machines (e.g., winches); etc.
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407 - AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY
farm tractors; machines used in animal husbandry (e.g., milking machines); ground breaking machines (e.g., plows, harrows); planting and cultivating machines; mowing machines and harvesters; sorting and packing machines; processing machines (e.g., cotton gins, threshing machines); repairs and maintenance; etc.
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41 - TOOLS AND APPLIANCES
general statements describing several distinct types of artifacts employed in industrial activities and of the motor habits involved in their use. The manufacture and industrial uses of the artifacts are treated under a variety of other headings, and are described below only in instances where there is no provision for their description elsewhere.
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412 - GENERAL TOOLS
cutting tools (e.g., knife, ax, adze, chisel, wedge, plane, scissors, saw, sickle); boring tools (e.g., awl, needle, drill, auger, bit, reamer); abrading tools (e.g., scraper, file, grindstone); striking tools (e.g., maul, hammer, pestle): eating utensils (e.g., knife, fork, spoon); digging tools (e.g., digging stick, spade, pick, hoe, shovel); gripping tools (e.g., tongs, tweezers, pincers, vise, grapnel, wrench); miscellaneous tools of general utility (e.g., broom, brush, fan, comb, rake, fork); parts and their assembly (e.g., blades, handles);
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413 - SPECIAL TOOLS
writing instruments (e.g., pencil, pen, brush); artists' tools; surgical instruments; specialized tools of particular crafts (e.g., of jewelers, barbers, smiths, masons, weavers); mensurating tools (e.g., gauge, compass, calipers, measuring rod, square, level, quadrant); etc.
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414 - MISCELLANEOUS HARDWARE
nails and screws; nuts, bolts, and rivets; pins and clips; pothooks; hinges, latches, and locks; plumbing fixtures (e.g., pipe, hose, faucets); miscellaneous fixtures; etc.
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415 - UTENSILS
water containers (e.g., tanks, barrels); food and beverage containers (e.g., cans, bottles, jars) ; kitchen utensils (e.g., pans, dishes, kettles, bowls, ladles); containers made from special materials (e.g., gourds, baskets, earthen pots, leather bags, wooden boxes, paper cartons); chemical utensils (e.q., test tubes, flasks, retorts, vats); brewing and distilling apparatus; utensils with special functions (e.g., molds, funnels, sieves, drinking straws) ; etc.
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416 - APPLIANCES
portable lights (e.g., torches, lanterns, flashlights); heat-regulating appliances (e.g., refrigerators, incubators); cameras; optical instruments (e.g., eyeglasses, microscope, telescope); appliances not elsewhere described; etc.
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417 - APPARATUS
supports (e.g., posts, frames, ladders, scaffolds); fences and gates; pens and corrals; birdcages; apparatus not elsewhere described; etc.
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42 - PROPERTY
general statements dealing with several of the specific aspects of the property system. Material concerning the property system as a whole will be filed in Category 421. The term "property" is to be distinguished from wealth, material possessions, or any object of ownership. It is to be understood only in the strict technical sense of the jural relations of men with regard to some subject matter and governing the use and enjoyment of the latter. In precise usage, a "right" is correlated with a "duty" (if A has a right against B, B is under a corresponding duty toward A); a "privilege" is correlated with "no right" (if A has a privilege as against B, B has no right against A, instead of a duty); a "power" is correlated with "liability" (if A has a power as against B, B is under a liability that his jural relations may be changed by a voluntary act on the part of A). A "title" is a distinct constellation of right, privileges, and powers with respect to some subject matter. A "type of ownership" refers to the social composition of the holders of a title, e.g., an individual, a partnership, a clan, a corporation, a state. A "property transaction" is an act which transfers a title to a new owner. A "property system" consists of every type of title, ownership, and property transaction recognized by a society with respect to all culturally defined classes of subject matter, and is not dependent upon the statistical frequency with which its constituent elements manifest themselves.
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421 - PROPERTY SYSTEM
principles of property law; rights, privileges, and powers commonly involved in property relations (e.g., rights that others shall not use or destroy, privileges of enjoyment, powers of alienation and of transmission after death); recognized types of titles or tenure; recognized types of ownership (e.g., individual, joint, corporate, collective, public); their relation to classes of subject matter (e.g., land, movables, slaves); their degree of integration; their legal and statistical importance; their association with kin and other social groups; etc.
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422 - PROPERTY IN MOVABLES
culturally defined categories of movables (e.g., food stores, personal clothing and ornaments, artifacts, domestic animals, ceremonial objects); recognized types of title or tenure; rights, privileges, and powers involved in each; relation of types of title to categories of movables; recognized types of ownership (e.g., individual, collective, corporate); legal and statistical distribution of types of ownership according to categories of movables, types of title, and classes of persons; records of ownership (e.g., property marks, registration) ; etc.
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423 - REAL PROPERTY
conception of the subject matter of real property (e.g., as that which produces food, as things that are fixed or immovable); culturally defined categories (e.q., land, trees, growing crops, buildings, water); types of land subject and not subject to property (e.g., sites with monopoly value, waste land); recognized types of title or estate (e.g., eminent domain, fee simple, life, leasehold, sufferance); rights, privileges, and powers involved in each (e.g., usufruct, reversionary claims, privileges of gift and sale, power of expropriation); recognized types of ownership (e.g., individual, collective, public); legal and statistical distribution of types of ownership according to categories of immovables, types of title or tenure, and classes of persons (e.g., exclusion of minors, of women, of slaves); general characteristics of the system of real property (e.g., private property, feudal tenure, collective property with periodic reallotments, communism); land reform; records of ownership (e-g., boundary marks, deeds); registration of titles; etc.
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424 - INCORPOREAL PROPERTY
extent to which property is recognized in intangible things (e.g., names, titles, songs, dances, visions, recipes, rituals, inventions); culturally defined categories of intangibles; recognized types of title; rights, privileges, and powers involved in titles to each type of incorporeal property; recognized types of ownership (e.g., individual, collective, corporate); distribution of types of ownership accordin? To categories of intangibles, types of title, and classes of persons; records of ownership (e.g., registration of patents and copyrights); patent and copyright law; etc.
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425 - ACQUISITION AND RELINQUISHMENT OF PROPERTY
recognized means by which property rights may be acquired (.e.g., appropriation, forceful seizure, gift, purchase); creation of new property rights (e.g., by physical appropriation, by priority of claim, by expenditure of labor in manufacture); rituals and symbols of appropriation; recognized means by which property rights may be extinguished (e.g., destruction, abandonment, confiscation, gift, sale); rights, privileges, and powers of the finders and losers of objects of property; etc.
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426 - BORROWING AND LENDING
bailmenti rights, privileges, and powers of bailor and bailee; loans and debts; pawning rights, privileges, and powers of debtor and creditor; formalities in the arrangement and repayment of loand (e.g., witnesses, surety, sponsors); security; interest; notes and mortgages; specialization (e.g., pawn shops); bankruptcy (e.g., law, administration); etc.
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427 - RENTING AND LEASING
extent to which real, movable, and incorporeal property may be leased or rented; leases and rents (e.g., negotiations, terms, formalities); modes of payment (e.g., money rent, share cropping); rights, privileges, and powers of lessor and lessee; eviction; prevalence of tenancy and of home and farm ownership; factors determining rental rates; regulation (e.g., rent controls); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "RENTING AND LEASING"
428 - INHERITANCE
forms of property and types of title subject and not subject to inheritance; disposition of noninherited property (e.g., destruction, abandonment, distribution by gift, reversion to a prior owner or his heirs); nondistribution (e.g., maintenance of estates intact within an extended family); preferred or natural heirs and relatives excluded from inheritance (e.g., children, siblings, spouses, parents); sex and age preferences (e.g., exclusion of females, primogeniture, ultimogeniture); persons who inherit in default of preferred heirs; types of ownership acquired by heirs; variant rules for different possessions and type of title; characterization of inheritance systems (e.g., as matrilineal, patrilineal, testamentary); dower (e.g., special provision for widow or widower); testamentary disposition (e.g., wills, bequests, legacies); formalities (e.g., probate procedure); probate law; etc.
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429 - ADMINISTRATION
guardianship (e.g., of minors, of widows, of defectives); rights, privileges, and powers of guardian and ward; trusts; rights, privileges, and powers of trustee and beneficiary; law of trusts; formalities; administration of estates; bankruptcy administration; specialization in administration (e.g., trust companies); regulation; etc.
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43 - EXCHANGE
general statements dealing with several aspects of the mechanisms of transferring economic goods and the titles to them, with the volume of such transactions, and with the determination of prices and economic values. For specialization in exchange see the 44* categories; see also:
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431 - GIFT GIVING
alienation of property by gift; rights, privileges, and powers of donor and recipient; frequency, types, occasions (e.g., ceremonial, religious, secular holidays, ritual) and purposes of gifts; social relationships within which gifts are given; formalities of giving and receiving: potlatches; reciprocal gift exchange (e.g., kula); role of gifts in the distribution of economic goods; etc.
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432 - BUYING AND SELLING
alienation of property by sale; rights, privileges, and powers of buyer and seller; law of sales; frequency of sales in comparison with gifts; cultural limitations on the sale of property; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "BUYING AND SELLING"
433 - PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY
productive capacity of the economy (e.g., actual and potential productivity of agriculture and industry); relative importance of various productive activities; economic supply (e.g., production of surpluses available for distribution); overproduction and shortages; restrictions on production; general statements on production costs and on different types of economic activity; etc.
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434 - INCOME AND DEMAND
national, family, and individual income; distribution of income by sources (e.g., wages, interest, rent, profits); economic demand (e.g., potential demand, effective purchasing power); restrictions on demand (e.g., rationing, sumptuary laws); general statements on supply and demand; etc.
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435 - PRICE AND VALUE
relation of economic values to other systems of value; factors determinative of price and value (e.g., abundance and scarcity, utility, cost of production, precedent); customary prices and conventional values; competitive prices; monopoly prices; price fixing; black market prices, price levels; prices of particular goods (e.g., in money, in purchasing power) ; etc.
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436 - MEDIUM OF EXCHANGE
articles circulating in exchange at their intrinsic value as standard money (e.g., salt, cattle, grain, shells, metal bars or coins); forms of representative money (e.g., warehouse receipts, certificates of deposit of standard money); credit money (e.g., government notes, bank notes); token money (e.g., subsidiary coins, shell money, bead money); coinage and mints; right of issuance; counterfeiting; etc.
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437 - EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS
types of exchange (e.g., barter, purchase of goods with money, exchange of services for goods); negotiations (e.g., higgling, auctioning); formalities; guarantees; trading expeditions; special trading relationships; etc.
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438 - DOMESTIC TRADE
local and regional specialization in production within the society; (e.g., home and cottage industry, location of particular industries); division of labor between town and country; volume of trade within and between communities and regions; articles entering into domestic commerce; motivation (e.g., profit, prestige); patterns of internal commerce; etc.
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439 - FOREIGN TRADE
intergroup specialization in production for export; articles entering into intergroup trade; volume of foreign trade (e.g., statistics of imports and exports); international trade agreements; smuggling; embargoes; etc.
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44 - MARKETING
general statements dealing with several aspects of the specialized elaboration and promotion of trade. For the mechanisms, articles, and volume of trade see the 43 categories; for its financing see the 45 categories; for business organization see the 47 categories.
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441 - MERCANTILE BUSINESS
extent of specialization in commerce; types and distribution of mercantile businesses; social status and special characteristics of merchants; business men's organizations (e.g., merchant guilds, trade associations, chambers of commerce); general characteristics of merchandising; special mercantile privileges and restrictions; etc.
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442 - WHOLESALE MARKETING
degree of specialization in wholesale marketing; prevalent types of wholesale business; methods and techniques of wholesale merchandising; buying at wholesale (e.g., specialized buyers, conventions, wholesale lots, discounts); information on specific wholesale businesses; etc.
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443 - RETAIL MARKETING
extent and variety of retail specialization; types of retail outlets (e.g., itinerant merchants, markets, bazaars, general stores, trading posts, specialty shops, chain stores, department stores, mail-order houses); pricing (e.g., fixed, variable); services to customers (e.g., deliveries); specialized personnel (e.g., sales clerks); etc.
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444 - RETAIL BUSINESSES
special characteristics and business methods of particular types of retail outlets (e.g., pharmacists, grocers, furniture stores, dress shops); information on individual retail businesses; etc.
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445 - SERVICE INDUSTRIES
degree of elaboration of retail businesses selling services rather than goods; types, distribution, and physical characteristics of service industries; specific information on those not elsewhere described (e.g., consultants, rental services, repairing); etc.
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446 - SALES PROMOTION
methods employed by industrial and business enterprises to promote their products (e.g., salesmen, display of products, bargain offers, credit extension); market research; sales campaigns; specialists (e.g., sales managers, salesmen); etc.
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447 - ADVERTISING
uses and degree of elaboration of advertising; media (e.g., handbills, mail advertising, billboards, newspapers and periodicals, radio); special techniques and research; advertising programs; specialized personnel (e.g., counsellors, copy writers); advertising agencies; regulation; etc.
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45 - FINANCE
general statements dealing with several aspects of transactions in money and credit rather than in material goods.
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451 - ACCOUNTING
bookkeeping methods (e.g., double entry); principles and techniques of business accounting; preparation of financial statements (e.g., debits and credits, income and expenditures, profit and loss); methods of dealing with intangible factors (e.g., good will, depreciation); specialists (e.g., accountants, financial counsellors); financial records; etc.
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452 - CREDIT
extension of credit by producers and middlemen; methods and terms; advances and discounts; bills of exchange; credit ratings and rating services; credit institutions other than banks (e.g., loan associations, finance companies); installment buying; etc.
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453 - BANKING
commercial banks; deposits and accounts; checks and drafts; bank loans and discounts; banking services and fees; clearing houses; specialized personnel; regulation; etc.
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454 - SAVING AND INVESTMENT
saving; hoarding; safekeeping (e.g., safes, safe deposit boxes); savings in relation to income; funds available for investment; available and preferred forms of investment (e.g., in land, buildings, cattle, business and productive enterprises, corporate securities, government obligations); savings accounts, postal savings, and savings banks; underwriting and issuance of corporate securities; investment banking; specialized personnel (e.g., investment brokers); regulation; etc.
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455 - SPECULATION
speculative transactions (e.g., futures, margins, hedging); speculative trading and specialized personnel; stock and produce exchanges; speculative booms; etc.
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456 - INSURANCE
distribution of risks through mutual aid; associations with insurance functions (e.g., lodges, mutual benefit societies); insurance organizations (e.g., private, mutual, governmental); types of insurance (e.g., life, health and casualty, fire, marine, old age); annuities; actuarial practice; insurance contracts; premiums; specialized personnel (e.g., adjustors, agents, salesmen); regulation; etc.
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457 - FOREIGN EXCHANGE
international trade balances and their payment; role of invisible factors (e.g., tourist trade, immigrant remittances); international credits and loans; foreign exchange brokers and markets; exchange controls (e.g., pegged currencies, special trade restrictions); etc.
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458 - BUSINESS CYCLES
periods of prosperity and depression; financial panics and recovery; cyclical expansion and contraction of credit; fluctuations in investment capital; inflation and deflation; etc.
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46 - LABOUR
general statements dealing with several aspects of work habits, economic specialization, employment, and labour relations. Information on the organization of labour of specific activities will be found in the pertinent categories.
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461 - LABOUR AND LEISURE
ideas of the value and dignity of labour; notions of pleasant and unpleasant tasks; distribution of labour and leisure time; incentives to labour (e.g., pride in craftsmanship, prestige, material rewards, compulsion); time and motion studies; intensity of effort; palliation of labour (e.g., with drugs, rhythm, music); work tempo (e.g., steady, intermittent); social work groups (e.g., work "bees"); standards of productivity and production norms; laziness and malingering; rest periods; loafing and loitering; etc.
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462 - DIVISION OF LABOUR BY SEX
activities customarily performed exclusively or predominantly by males or by females; activities forbidden to or despised by one sex; activities in which both sexes participate (e.g., jointly, alternatively); routine tasks and relative economic contribution of each sex; sex-limited occupations and professions; etc. This category is designed primarily for summary statements about sex specialization; incidental information will frequently appear only under the headings for specific activities.
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463 - OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALIZATION
number of partially and fully specialized occupations; major occupational categories (e.g., learned and artistic professions, independent industrial and business entrepreneurs, managerial personnel, independent and tenant farmers, government officials, clerical and whitecollar workers, skilled artisans, semi-skilled and unskilled industrial workers, farm labourers, domestic servants, slaves); general information about occupational specialization; vocational guidance; specific information on occupations not classifiable elsewhere; etc. This category is designed for summary statements about occupational specialization; in nearly all instances specific information will be classified elsewhere under a wide range of functional and occupational headings.
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464 - LABOUR SUPPLY AND EMPLOYMENT
availability and scarcity of labour force; skilled and unskilled labour; incidence and types of unemployment (e.g., voluntary, intermittent, seasonal, cyclical, residual, technological); employment opportunities; labour mobility and turnover; employment agencies; regulation (e.g., age and sex restrictions); etc.
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465 - WAGES AND SALARIES
wage levels (e.g., real and money wages); range and variation by occupational categories; composition (e.g., proportion paid in money, in board and keep, in share of product); fees and percentages; determination of wages (e.g., by custom, negotiation; edict or legislation); payments (e.g., daily, weekly, monthly); regulation (e.g., minimum wage legislation) ; etc.
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466 - LABOUR RELATIONS
respective rights, privileges, and powers of employers and employees; hiring and firing; tenure of employment; instruction and supervision; promotion and retirement; pension plans; working conditions (e.g., hours, hygienic conditions, safety provisions, recreational facilities); prevalence and types of forced labour; indentured labour; regulation (e.g., labour legislation); etc.
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467 - LABOUR ORGANIZATION
existence of labour organizations (e.g., craft guilds, labour unions); prevalent types (e.g., craft, industrial, company, and government-sponsored unions); rules of admission; dues; status levels (e.g., apprentices, journeymen); officers (e.g., mode of selection, functions, powers); services to members; general political activities (e.g., affiliation with political parties, political action committees) ; relations with other labour organizations; with international organizations; government regulation of labour organization; etc.
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468 - COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
negotiations between labour unions and employers; strikes and lockouts; strike-breaking and picketing; boycotts; labour agreements; arbitration; etc.
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47 - BUSINESS AND INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION
general statements covering several types of business or industrial organizations. Specific types and modes of organization for the production and distribution of economic goods, with the characteristics of each, and with their relationship to the ownership and control of capital will be filed under the appropriate three digit category below.
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471 - OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL OF CAPITAL
major forms of productive capital (e.g., land, cattle, industrial plants); extent to which the instruments of production are individually, collectively, internationally and publicly owned; forms and elaboration of governmental control (e.g., nationalized industries); etc. Only generalized data will be filed here: for information on specific ownership and organization, see the more specialized categories below.
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472 - INDIVIDUAL ENTERPRISE
business and industrial enterprises with owner management; specific characteristics and forms of organization (e.g., individual ownership and management, partnerships, family businesses); opportunities for and justifications of individual enterprise; distribution of profits between owners and employees; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "INDIVIDUAL ENTERPRISE"
473 - CORPORATE ORGANIZATION
business and industrial enterprises of a corporate nature (e.g., joint stock companies, holding companies, international stock companies); incorporation; registration; corporate securities (e.g., bonds, preferred and common stocks); managerial structure and functions (e.g., directors, officers, managers, foremen); rights, privileges, and powers of stockholders and management; corporation law; reorganization and receivership; etc.
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474 - COOPERATIVE ORGANIZATION
producers' and consumers' cooperatives; relationship between ownership, control, and management; organization (e.g., Rochdale plan); services to members; collective farms; etc.
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475 - STATE ENTERPRISE
business and industrial enterprises under government operation; method of finance; system of direction, supervision, and control; managerial structure and functions; evidence bearing upon cost and efficiency of operation; etc.
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476 - MUTUAL AID
cooperation in economic activities (e.g., mutual aid); exchange of services; cooperative work groups; material and social rewards of cooperation; interaction and relative elaboration of cooperative and competitive activities; etc.
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477 - COMPETITION
incidence of competition between economic enterprises of the same and of different organizational types; manifestations of competition (e.g., price-cutting) ; methods of restricting competition (e.g., price agreements, monopolistic arrangements); characteristics of competitive and monopolistic enterprises; regulation (e. g. , "trust-busting") ; etc.
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48 - TRAVEL AND TRANSPORTATION
general statements dealing with several aspects of travel and transportation. For data on the major facilities for travel and transportation by land, sea, and air see the 49 and 50 categories; for military transport see Category 71; for communications see Category 20.
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481 - LOCOMOTION
walking and running; gaits; speed and distances covered; artificial aids (e.g., canes, crutches, stilts, snowshoes, skis, skates); special modes of locomotion (e.g., crawling, jumping, climbing, swimming, diving); etc.
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482 - BURDEN CARRYING
methods of carrying burdens (e.g., on head, shoulders, back); gear (e.g., head pad, tumpline, carrying pole, pack basket); specialists in burden carrying (e.g., porters, coolies); uses (e.g., on safari); etc.
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483 - WEIGHT MOVING
application of human energy in the transportation of heavy weights (e.g., logs, heavy stones, carcasses of large animals); mechanical aids and cooperative techniques employed; use of weight-moving machinery; lifting or raising of heavy objects (e.g., in loading vessels, erection of megaliths); etc.
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484 - TRAVEL
volume, frequency, range, and occasions of travel; trips and expeditions (e.g., tourist travel, exploring expeditions); routine of travel (e.g., marching, caravans, camping); commuting; etc.
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484.1 - TOURISM
> Ergebnisliste zu "TOURISM"
485 - TRAVEL SERVICES
accommodations (e.g., hotels, inns, guest houses); information and travellers' aid services; guides; ticket and travel agencies; organizations of and for travellers (e.g., automobile clubs); etc.
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486 - REGULATION OF TRAVEL
restrictions on travel; permits and passports; examinations and inspections; registration; safe-conduct; etc.
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487 - ROUTES
footpaths and trails (e.g., character, distribution); sea and air lanes; trade and caravan routes; marking of routes (e.g., blazes, signposts); route maps and charts; etc.
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488 - WAREHOUSING
operation and regulation of warehouses; services (e.g., storage, preservation, stockpiling, care of goods in transit); organization and personnel; charges; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "WAREHOUSING"
489 - TRANSPORTATION
extent of transportation; carrying capacity and volume of traffic by types of transport; transportation systems and their integration; regulation of transportation (e.g.,permits, customs inspections); etc.
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49 - LAND TRANSPORT
general statements dealing with several of the specialized means and facilities for land travel and transportation. For general information on travel and transportation see the 48* categories.
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491 - HIGHWAYS AND BRIDGES
number, location, and distribution of roads; character (e.g., straight, meandering); surfacing and drainage; adjuncts (e.g., culverts, bridges, causeways, tunnels, fords, ferries); highway maintenance (e.g., responsibility, techniques, special apparatus, personnel); etc.
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492 - ANIMAL TRANSPORT
use of pack, draft, and riding animals; gear (e.g., saddle, bridle, stirrup, yoke, harness); loads; methods of guiding and riding; etc.
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493 - VEHICLES
burden vehicles (e.g., litter, sedan chair); drag vehicles (e.g., sledge, travois); wheeled vehicles (e.g., cart, wagon, wheelbarrow, bicycle, motorcycle, automobile, tram, railway rolling stock); motive power; structure and capacity; methods of guiding and riding; mode of operation; gear; etc. This category is designed for descriptive data only; uses of vehicles will be found in separate categories.
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494 - HIGHWAY TRANSPORT
use of highways for travel and transportation; animal and vehicular traffic; private and public transport systems (e.g., carting, stagecoaches, cab services, trucking, tramways, bus lines); organization; specialized personnel (e.g., drivers, carters, tram and bus conductors); fares and tolls; regulation (e.g., licenses, traffic rules); highway patrols; etc.
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495 - AUXILIARY HIGHWAY SERVICES
post and relay stations; livery stables; garages and repair shops; filling stations; organization and personnel; services; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "AUXILIARY HIGHWAY SERVICES"
496 - RAILWAYS
number, location, and distribution of railways; tracks and roadbeds; bridges, trestles, and tunnels; sidings and switches; signalling and control systems; maintenance of roadbeds and rolling stock; etc.
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497 - RAIL TRANSPORT
freight and passenger services and accommodations; make-up and operation of trains; schedules; fares and freight charges; traffic control; special services (e.g., railway express, refrigerated freight service); organization and specialized personnel; regulation; etc.
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498 - TERMINAL FACILITIES
bus, tram, railway terminals; passenger services at railway and bus stations; freight yards; terminal repair facilities; freight and fuel storage facilities; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "TERMINAL FACILITIES"
499 - HIGHWAY AND RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION
surveying of route; grading; construction of culverts, bridges, trestles , and tunnels; laying of ties and rails or of highway surface; organization of labour and production; etc .
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50 - WATER AND AIR TRANSPORT
general statements dealing with several aspects of the means and facilities for travel and transportation by water and air. For general information on travel and transportation see the 48 categories.
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501 - BOATS
types of water craft (e.g., rafts, skin and plank boats, bark and dugout canoes, motor boats, sailing vessels, steamships); specialized craft (e.g., ferries, tugs, canal boats, tankers); mode of propulsion (e.g., poling, towing, paddling, rowing, sailing, power propulsion); rigging; machinery; gear (e.g., oars, paddles, rudders, anchors); seating, eating, and sleeping accommodations; etc. This category is designed for descriptive data only.
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502 - NAVIGATION
direction of water craft (e.g., steering, tacking, piloting); watches; laying of courses (e.g., by landmarks, compass); fixing of positions (e.g., by sounding, celestial observations); adjuncts to navigation (e.g., buoys, lighthouses); adaptations to special situations (e.g., docking, running of rapids, portaging, ice-breaking, canal navigation); maritime customs and regulations; shipwrecks; salvage; life-saving and sea rescue services; etc.
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503 - WATERWAYS IMPROVEMENTS
description and building of canals; dredging of rivers and harbours; construction of piers and breakwaters; etc.
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504 - PORT FACILITIES
boathouses; piers and docks; facilities for mooring, loading, and unloading; storage facilities; supply services (e.g., ship chandlers, fuelling stations); facilities for repair and overhaul; use of natural harbours; etc.
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505 - WATER TRANSPORT
number, types, and distribution of shipping services; passenger and freight capacity and traffic; sailing schedules; fares and freight charges; booking arrangements; specialized personnel (e.g., line and engineer officers, crews, longshoremen, traffic agents); organization (e.g., shipping companies); regulation; etc. This category includes all types of water transportation.
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506 - AIRCRAFT
types of air and space craft (e.g., balloons, dirigibles, gliders, airplanes); mode of propulsion; machinery and instruments; landing gear; freight and passenger accommodations; etc.
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507 - AVIATION
aeronautic and astronautic science; operation of aircraft (e.g., takeoff, banking, instrument flying, landing); laying of courses; fixing of positions; adjuncts to aerial navigation (e.g., beacons, radio beams, radar tracking stations); regulations governing flying; etc.
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508 - AIRPORT FACILITIES
air fields; loading, unloading, and fuelling facilities; facilities for repair and overhaul; freight and passenger facilities at airports and air terminals; etc.
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509 - AIR TRANSPORT
number and distribution of airlines; passenger and freight capacity and traffic; mode of conveyance to and from airports; flight schedules; fares and freight charges; booking arrangements; specialized personnel (e.g., pilots, navigators, radio operators, stewardesses, ground crews, sales force); private and public operation; mail subsidies; government regulation; etc.
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51 - LIVING STANDARDS AND ROUTINES
general statements concerned with several aspects of economic and esthetic standards, and with some of the routine habits of life. For standards of etiquette and ethics see the 57 categories. For routine habits concerned with eating see Category 264, with drinking see the 27 categories, with sex see the 83 categories, with adornment see the 30 categories, with recreation see the 52 categories, with religion see the 78 categories, with labor see the 46 categories, with housekeeping see Category 356, with language see the 19 categories, with locomotion see Category 481.
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511 - STANDARD OF LIVING
ideal standards and actual levels of quantity and quality in regard to shelter, clothing, food, and other consumers' goods; extent to which actual levels fall below the minimal requirements for normal, healthy living; results of statistical studies (e.g., of family budgets); cultural standards of indulgence and luxuries in excess of minimal biological requirements; etc.
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512 - DAILY ROUTINE
succession of activities throughout a typical day; time of arising and retiring; hours of work and relaxation; daily chores; longer rhythms (e.g., weekly, monthly); etc.
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513 - SLEEPING
hours of sleeping; postures in sleeping; segregation in sleeping (e.g., by age, by sex); bedding; ideas about sleep and sleepiness; naps and siestas; etc.
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514 - ELIMINATION
postures in urination and defecation; conception of appropriate times and places for elimination; spitting; disposal of excreta; toilet facilities and fixtures; associated ideas and practices (e.g., modesty, scatologic rites); etc.
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515 - PERSONAL HYGIENE
frequency and methods of bathing and laving; use of washing and bathing facilities; use of soap and other cleansers; use of towels; conception and idealization of cleanliness; miscellaneous hygienic practices (e.g., brushing of teeth, washing of hair, removal of body lice); etc.
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516 - POSTURES
bodily positions assumed in standing (e.g., with feet apart, on one leg, leaning against a support, slumping); relaxed postures (e.g., sitting, squatting, kneeling); recumbent postures (e.g., reclining on elbow); occasions for assuming particular postures; ideas about correct postures; motor habits not elsewhere described; etc.
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517 - LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES
standards of amusement, recreation, and artistic appreciation: distribution of leisure time between active and passive, between social and individualistic, and between culturally preferred and less preferred pursuits; esthetic ideals and principles; canons of taste; levels of appreciation and "culture"; etc.
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52 - RECREATION
general statements dealing with several different forms of recreation involving active participation. For those mainly involving spectatorship see the 54 categories.
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521 - CONVERSATION
loquacity and reserve; boasting and shyness; conversational patterns (e.g., idle chatter, rambling discourse, discussion, argument); occasions and places; participants; typical subjects (e.g., weather, news, gossip, politics); privileged and unprivileged communications; etc.
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522 - HUMOR
conception of humor; sources of amusement (e.g., mishaps); types of humor (e.g., wit, puns, practical jokes); expressions of amusement (e.g., smiling, laughter); droll stories; coarse humor (e.g., anal, pornographic); humorists (e.g., wits, jesters, comedians); special elaborations of humor (e.g., comic strips); etc.
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523 - HOBBIES
individual pastimes (e.g., reading); elaboration of economic and technological pursuits into hobbies (e.g., animal breeding, bookbinding, cookery, embroidery, woodworking); construction of models; collectors' hobbies (e.g., philately, coins, antiques, first editions, heirlooms); etc.
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524 - GAMES
playthings (e.g., dolls, blocks, mechanical toys); games of dexterity (e.g., string figures, tops, juggling, kite flying, billiards); problem games (e.g., riddles, charades, puzzles); games of calculation (e.g., chess, checkers, card games); special children's games; occasions for playing games; participants and spectators; special equipment; rules; organizers and sponsors of games (e.g., cliques, clubs, churches, communities, business organizations); etc.
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525 - GAMBLING
laying of wagers on games, athletic contests, and spectacles; betting; lotteries; special gambling devices (e.g., roulette wheels); calculation of odds (e.g., bookmakers, parimutuel machines); informal gambling; gaming houses and their operation; gambling as a method of finance (e.g., government lotteries, church bingo games, hospital sweepstakes, club slot machines); specialists (e.g., gamblers, croupiers); prevalence of and attitudes toward gambling; restrictions and regulations; etc.
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526 - ATHLETIC SPORTS
forms of exercise (e.g., hiking, swimming, skating, skiing, riding, mountain climbing, calisthenics, gymnastics); sports of pursuit (e.g., hide-and-seek, paper chases); individual contests (e.g., foot races, jumping, weight lifting, boxing, wrestling, archery, hoop and dart game, javelin throwing, trap shooting, bowling, tennis, golf); team contests (e.g., tug-of-war, boat races, lacrosse, hockey, football, baseball, basketball, polo); occasions; participants and spectators; special equipment; rules; associated ideas (e.g., sportsmanship, amateur status, value of physical fitness); organizers and sponsors of sports (e.g., clubs, schools, business organizations, promoters); etc.
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527 - REST DAYS AND HOLIDAYS
days reserved for rest from labor; conceptualization (e.g., as harvest celebrations, as patriotic or commemorative occasions, as reserved by religious taboos); secular festivals (e.g., harvest, housewarming, patriotic); birthdays and anniversaries; holiday activities (e.g., feasting, drinking, visiting, games, pageants); etc. For ceremonies associated with specific economic activities see elsewhere under specialized categories (e.g., agricultural ceremonies, see the 24 categories).
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528 - VACATIONS
extended leave from labor; incidence, duration, and cultural justifications; vacation activities (e.g., rest, recreation, travel, visiting, frequenting of resorts); etc.
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529 - RECREATIONAL FACILITIES
vacation resorts (e.g., spas, mountain retreats, winter sports facilities, beach resorts, state and national parks); bridge, chess, riding, and rifle clubs and their facilities; athletic and country clubs; amusement parks; enterprises catering to games and sports (e.g., pool rooms, bowling alleys, shooting galleries, gymnasiums, skating rinks); special equipment, organization, operation and specialized personnel; etc.
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53 - FINE ARTS
general statements dealing with several aspects of the creation and interpretation of art. For art as a source of entertainment see the 54 categories, for esthetic ideals and canons of taste see Category 517, for art forms associated with ceremonials see Category 796.
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531 - DECORATIVE ART
types of artifacts decorated and not decorated; decorative techniques (e.g., carving, engraving, painting, inlay, embroidery); use of color and relief; designs and patterns (e. g. , naturalistic, geometric) ; decorative symbols and their meanings; elaborated styles; associated beliefs and practices; specialists; etc.
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532 - REPRESENTATIVE ART
techniques in painting and sculpture (e.g., drawing or painting on flat surfaces, incising in relief, modeling or carving in the round); materials and implements used; subjects (e.g., still life, landscapes, human beings, abstractions); use of color; composition; appreciation of form and perspective; styles (e.g., naturalistic, idealistic, symbolic, abstract); special products (e.g., etchings, basreliefs, masks); specialized fields (e.g., portraiture, commercial art, religious sculpture); artists and sculptors; etc.
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532.1 - SCULPTURES AND RELIEFS
> Ergebnisliste zu "SCULPTURES AND RELIEFS"
532.2 - MASKS
> Ergebnisliste zu "MASKS"
532.3 - PETROGLYPHS
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532.4 - GRAPHICS
etchings, lithographs, woodcuts.
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532.5 - DRAWINGS
> Ergebnisliste zu "DRAWINGS"
532.6 - PAINTINGS
> Ergebnisliste zu "PAINTINGS"
532.7 - MOTIF
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532.8 - STYLE
> Ergebnisliste zu "STYLE"
532.9 - SYMBOLISM
iconography, iconology, etc.
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532.10 - SOCIAL ASPECTS OF REPRESENTATIVE ART
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532.11 - ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF REPRESENTATIVE ART
> Ergebnisliste zu "ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF REPRESENTATIVE ART"
532.12 - TRADITIONAL VS. MODERN ART
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532.13 - ARTISTS
> Ergebnisliste zu "ARTISTS"
532.14 - ART TRADE
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533 - MUSIC
musical form and structure (e.g., scale, pitch, tone, tempo, rhythm); melody; harmony; vocal music (e.g., singing, humming, chanting); instrumental music (e.g., accompaniment, solo playing, orchestras); occasions for music; song styles (e.g., work songs, drinking songs, dance songs, war songs, love songs, lullabies, sacred music, dirges and laments); musical training and appreciation; composition of music; specialization (e.g., composers, minstrels, musicologists, musicians); organization (e.g., choirs, bands, orchestras); etc.
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533.1 - HISTORY OF MUSIC
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533.2 - THEORIES; RESEARCH METHODS; TRANSCRIPTION
> Ergebnisliste zu "THEORIES; RESEARCH METHODS; TRANSCRIPTION"
533.3 - TONE; STYLE; TONAL SYSTEMS; MELODY
> Ergebnisliste zu "TONE; STYLE; TONAL SYSTEMS; MELODY"
533.4 - MUSIC TRADITION
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533.5 - MUSIC IN SOCIAL, CULTURAL, AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXTS
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533.6 - SONGS
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534 - MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
idiophones (e.g., clappers, gongs, rattles) ; membranophones (e.g. , drums) ; cordophones (e.g. , zithers, lutes, harps); aerophones (e.g., flutes, pipes, trumpets); special instruments (e.g., bullroarers); complex mechanical instruments (e.g., piano, organ); care and repair of musical instruments; etc.
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535 - DANCING
dance styles (e.g., imitative, pantomimic, symbolic, stylized); technique (e.g., movements of the head, trunk, and limbs); gestures, postures, and their symbolism; solo, pair, and group dancing; choreographic patterns; extemporization and formalization; rhythm; musical accompaniment; occasions for dancing and associated dance forms (e.g., war dances, shamanistic dances, ballroom dancing, tap dancing); participants and spectators; dancing places (e.g., dance halls); dance costumes and paraphernalia; emotional expression in dancing; training in dancing; specialized dancers and dance leaders; choreographic arts allied to dancing (e.g., figure skating); etc.
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536 - DRAMA
compositions for dramatic representation; types (e.g., tragedy, comedy, farce); themes (e.g., from myth, history, everyday life); treatment (e.g., realistic, stylized); conventional limitations on dramatic composition; characters and parts; impersonation; acting techniques (e.g., gestures, postures, emotional expression); costumes and paraphernalia; make-up; staging (e.g., scenery, lighting, props, musical accompaniment); acts, scenes, choruses, and interludes; specialists (e.g., playwrights, actors, stagehands, directors); relation of drama to dancing, mythology, magic, and ritual; special types of plays (e.g., puppet shows, shadow plays, musical comedies); special roles (e.g., clowns); etc.
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537 - ORATORY
rhetorical style; patterned forms of oratory (e.g., narration, debating, exhortation); techniques of declamation (e.g., exaggeration, repetition, figures of speech); gestures and postures in orating; training in public speaking; occasions for oratory; etc.
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538 - LITERATURE
literary styles; poetry (e.g., epic, lyric); verse forms (e.g., couplets, stanzas) ; poetic techniques (e.g., meter, rhyme, alliteration); prose forms (e.g., tales, sagas, proverbs, fiction, short stories, essays); narrative plot and structure; literary subjects and themes; characters (e.g., animals, men, gods); treatment (e.g., realism, fantasy, allegory, satire); composition; literary conventions; recitation and narration (e.g., occasions, audiences); specialists (e.g., poets, prose authors, story tellers, ghost writers); etc. This category is reserved for generalized descriptions of literature. For literary texts, and analyses and commentaries related to specific literary works see Category 539.
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539 - LITERARY TEXTS
texts, translations, and abstracts of folktales, myths, songs, and other individual literary products; critical analyses and commentaries thereupon; etc.
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539.1 - MYTHS AND RITUAL TEXTS
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539.2 - POSTCOLONIAL WRITING
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54 - ENTERTAINMENT
general statements dealing primarily with the enjoyment of recreational and artistic activities on the part of spectators rather than participants, and especially with the more commercialized aspects of such activities.
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541 - SPECTACLES
patriotic celebrations; parades; fireworks displays; military reviews; secular pageants; carnivals, circuses, and rodeos; animal racing and fighting (e.g., horse and dog races, bull baiting, cockfighting); gladiatorial combats; public executions; organization of spectacles; financing (e.g., by profits, voluntary contributions, subsidies); admissions (e.g., gratis, by ticket); specialists (e.g., organizers, performers); etc.
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542 - COMMERCIALIZED SPORTS
commercially organized athletic events (e.g., boxing and wrestling matches, ball games, racing events); sponsors (e.g., political units, educational institutions, business entrepreneurs); special facilities (e.g., stadiums, ball fields); promotional activities; seating arrangements and distribution of tickets; specialists (e.g., professional and amateur athletes, coaches, promoters); offering of rewards (e.g., prizes, cups); championships and records; international contests (e.g., modern Olympic games, test matches); behavior of spectators; etc.
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543 - EXHIBITIONS
international expositions; local and regional fairs; animal-judging contests (e.g., horse and dog shows); handicraft displays; automobile and flower shoes; art exhibitions; special exhibits (e.g., by libraries and museums); offering of prizes and awards; organization of exhibitions; mode of finance (e.g., by sale of tickets, sale of articles on display, voluntary contributions); specialized organizers and dealers; etc.
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544 - PUBLIC LECTURES
lectures on literary and artistic subjects; illustrated travelogues; public debates; addresses on current events; forums on public issues; lectures on scientific and scholarly subjects; speeches at banquets; public appearances of a non-theatrical nature by artists and musicians; lecture tours and circuits; organization and promotion of lectures: finance (e.g., from endowed funds, by sale of tickets); etc.
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545 - MUSICAL AND THEATRICAL PRODUCTIONS
public concerts; operatic productions; performances by dance troupes (e.g., ballets); burlesque and vaudeville; production of musical comedies and plays; stock companies, amateur musicals and theatricals; metropolitan show business (e.g., selection of a play, backers, producers, casting, try-outs, staging, rehearsals, promotion, advance sales, first nights, reviews, runs, motion picture rights, royalties, returns on investment, road companies); promotion of other musical and dramatic productions; etc.
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546 - MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY
production, distribution, and exhibition of motion pictures; script writing; casting; locations and sets; filming; special equipment and techniques (e.g., technicolor, sound); products (e.g., film plays, animated cartoons, educational and documentary films); system of distribution (e.g., chains, block booking, runs); motion picture theaters and their operation; specialists (e.g., producers, script writers, actors, cameramen, distributors, operators); economic organization of the industry; regulation; etc.
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547 - NIGHT CLUBS AND CABARETS
enterprises providing food, liquor, music, and dancing in various combinations (e.g., supper clubs, jukebox cafes, cabarets, roadhouses); types of entertainment offered; patronage; organization and specialization; regulation; etc.
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548 - ORGANIZED VICE
prostitutes and houses of prostitution; recruiting of prostitutes; business methods; auxiliary specialists (e.g., procurers, madams, pimps); [...] illicit narcotics trade (e.g., drug peddlers, opium dens); underworld gambling establishments; illicit liqor business (e.g., rumrunning, bootlegging, speakeasies); organization of underworld activities; political protection and graft; racketeering; etc.
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549 - ART AND RECREATIONAL SUPPLIES INDUSTRIES
distribution of equipment and accessories used in recreation, entertainment, and the fine arts (e.g., sporting goods, stamps and philatelic equipment, books, art supplies, musical instruments, theatrical and motion picture equipment); manufacture of special equipment and supplies (e.g., toys, sporting goods, musical instruments, art and theatrical supplies); business methods and specialization etc.
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55 - INDIVIDUATION AND MOBILITY
general statements covering several aspects of individuation and mobility; status, names, and naming. The term "status" is here used to connote the position occupied by an individual in any repetitive social relationship. The behavior exhibited by the occupant of a status is his "role", i.e., his enactment of his part in the relationship. Societies tend to rank certain statuses as higher and lower, and within a status to rank the roles of different individuals in terms of how adequately they measure up to the cultural expectations for that status. The "prestige" of any individual reflects both the level of the various statuses that he occupies and the social estimate of his roles in each. Some statuses are ascribed and not achievable, being gained either automatically or not at all. An individual can enhance his prestige through his own effort only by improving the performance of his roles or by moving into achievable statuses of higher social standing. By "mobility" is meant the means by which these objectives are accomplished.
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551 - PERSONAL NAMES
proper names of individuals (e.g., given names and/or surnames, patronyms, number and variety, meanings, circumstances of use); sex and status differences; special name usages (e.g., nicknames, aliases, teknonymy); name taboos and avoidances; etc.
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552 - NAMES OF ANIMALS AND THINGS
proper names of individual animals, houses, boats, and other objects; meanings; bestowal and use; etc.
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553 - NAMING
bestowal of names in infancy; name givers and namesakes; naming ceremonies; exchange of names; reciprocal relationships created by naming or name exchange; assumption of new names (e.g., occasions, ceremonial); posthumous assumption of names; reasons for name changing; bestowal and assumption of honorific names and titles; etc.
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554 - STATUS, ROLE, AND PRESTIGE
relative prevalence of ascribed and achievable statuses; statuses adapted to particular personality types; general comments on the social ranking of statuses and roles; types of roles and achievable statuses which bring the largest rewards in prestige; individuals typifying the foregoing (e.g., celebrities, national heroes); symbolic tokens of the achievement of prestige (e.g., medals, titles, insignia, praise songs, special privileges, coats of arms); general statements on the various avenues of mobility (e.g., technological skill, wealth, shrewdness, valor, piety, wisdom); etc.
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555 - TALENT MOBILITY
extent to which prestige can be gained by mastering or excelling in some complex or difficult cultural activity (e.g., religious ritual, fine arts, scholarship, war, technology, business); talents and skills most highly rewarded in prestige (e.g., directly rather than indirectly through the material remuneration they may bring); frequency with which such channels of mobility are chosen; desirable statuses achievable thereby; symbolic tokens of success; specific techniques (e.g., counting coup, writing a bestseller, making a scientific discovery winning an Olympic race); etc.
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556 - ACCUMULATION OF WEALTH
extent to which prestige can be gained through amassing wealth; means used to accumulate wealth or degree of skill involved; principal objects of wealth (e.g., money, cattle, slaves, land); relative importance of sheer accumulation, of display, of generosity in distribution; prominence of wealth accumulation as a mobility mechanism; desirable statuses achievable thereby; symbolic tokens of success; specific techniques (e.g., conspicuous consumption, potlatching, endowing a college, buying a title); etc.
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557 - MANIPULATIVE MOBILITY
extent to which desirable statuses and the prestige they bring can be achieved by opportunistic manipulation of social relationships (e.g., cultivation of persons in authority, political machinations, exploitation of friends and relatives, backslapping, marriages of convenience); prominence and relative effectiveness of manipulative techniques as compared with acquisition of skills and wealth; desirable statuses achievable thereby (e.g., political preferment); etc.
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558 - DOWNWARD MOBILITY
possibility and incidence of serious loss of prestige; extent to which such loss involves actual descent to less desirable statuses or merely a less favorable estimate of role enactment in the same statuses; major factors in downward mobility (e.g., loss of wealth, mesalliance, cowardice, impiety, crime); special examples (e.g., losing face, losing caste); etc.
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56 - SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
general statements covering several aspects of the major differentiations in social status that are commonly hierarchically graded or stratified. For occupational differentiation see Category 463; for differentiation in political statuses see the 62, 63 and 64 categories.
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561 - AGE STRATIFICATION
recognized age levels and their differentiation (e.g., age terms); generalized information on rites of passage from level to level; organized age-grades (e.g., composition, admission, advancement, symbols of membership, activities); relations between age levels and age groups; division of labor by age; etc.
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562 - SEX STATUS
rights, privileges, powers, duties, and disabilities of each sex (e.g., legal, domestic, economic, political, ceremonial); special exceptions for each sex; general statements bearing upon the status inferiority or superiority of women; special elaborations (e.g, chivalry, notions of the uncleanness of women); explanations of sex differences; competition between sexes; stereotyped attitudes of each sex towards the other (e.g., disdain, idealization); etc.
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563 - ETHNIC STRATIFICATION
alien and immigrant subgroups; racial linguistic, religious and national minorities; cultural differences between and characteristics of ethnic and minority groups; social and political status of ethnic subgroups; race prejudice and discrimination; assimilation and irredentism; extent of intermarriage; race crossing and amalgamation; racial hybrids and their status; etc.
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564 - CASTES
presence of absence of stratified groups between which mobility is theoretically impossible; number, distribution, and ranking of castes and subcastes; basis of differentiation (e.g., race, occupation, religion); insignia and stigmata of caste; prerogatives and disabilities; organization and activities; relations between castes; special marriage regulations (e.g., endogamy, hypergamy); extent of intermarriage; special outcaste groups; etc.
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565 - CLASSES
presence or absence of stratified groups between which mobility is to at least some extent possible; number and ranking of social classes; composition and distribution; basis of differentiation (e.g., wealth, occupation, ascribed status, conquest); class consciousness; degree of class organization; integration of cliques with classes; class prerogatives and disabilities; insignia and stigmata of classes; relations between classes; extent of intermarriage; status and affiliation of children of interclass marriages; special social classes (e.g., royalty, nobles, peasants and commoners, bourgeois and proletariat); etc.
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566 - SERFDOM AND PEONAGE
presence or absence of a semi-servile class bound to the land; prerogatives, disabilities, and stigmata of serfs in a feudal society; characteristics of peonage in nonfeudal societies; etc.
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567 - SLAVERY
presence or absence of a servile class of chattel slaves; number of slaves and proportion in the population; activities of slaves; methods of control; treatment; stigmata; rights and privileges of slaves (e.g., to hold property, to marry, to contract debts); rights, privileges, and powers of masters (e.g., to kill, to sell, to hire out); enslavement (e.g., of war captives, for debt, for crime); slave trade; permanency of servile status (e.g., hereditary, for life) ; redemption (e.g., manumission, adoption, purchase of freedom, escape, asylum); intermarriage between slaves and freemen; status of children of mixed marriages; emancipation; etc.
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57 - INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS
general statements dealing with several specific aspects of interpersonal relations. Society is a structure of interpersonal relationships, i.e., sets of reciprocally adjusted habitual responses between pairs of interacting individuals. These tend widely to become culturally defined or standardized in terms of polar statuses. A social group arises whenever a number of specific individuals are linked, each to every other, by relationships of the same general types, e.g., friendship, kinship, or coresidence. Groups likewise reveal a marked tendency to become culturally standardized. The categories below are concerned with the general characteristics of interpersonal relationships and social groups, with some of their more voluntary forms, and with the unifying standards and disruptive influences typical of social relationships and groups in general.
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571 - SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS AND GROUPS
incidence of types of social relationships (e.g., face-to-face, stereotypes); social interaction (e.g., interaction rates); categories of social groups (e.g., primary, secondary); general observations on the nature, structure and interrelations of social groups not classifiable elsewhere (e.g., intelligentsia, Philistines, secular cult groups, elites, etc.); sociometric data; evidence bearing upon the dynamics of group formation; general statements on decisionmaking within social groups; etc. Information on specific interest groups, kin groups, political and religious groups, etc., will be filed elsewhere under specialized categories.
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572 - FRIENDSHIPS
conceptualization of friendship; informal friendships and their development; formal friendships (e.g., best friends, guest friendship); reciprocal obligations of friends; etc.
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573 - CLIQUES
groups of intimate friends; basis of association; organization and leadership; attitude toward outsiders; clique activities; special types of cliques (e.g., gangs); etc.
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574 - VISITING AND HOSPITALITY
extent and occasions of visiting; social relationships characterized by reciprocal visiting; reception and entertainment of visitors; informal and formal hospitality; offering of food and drink; feasts and parties; etc.
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575 - SODALITIES
prevalence of clubs, fraternities, and comparable voluntary associations; types (e.g., lodges, secret societies, men's clubs, women's clubs); organization, characteristics, and activities of each type (e.g., intersodality relationships; origin accounts, paraphernalia, etc.); selection of members; initiation; meetings; special rituals; etc.
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576 - ETIQUETTE
greetings and salutations ; obeisances; compliments; concept of courtesy; general patterns of etiquette in eating, drinking, smoking, visiting, and travel; deference to status superiors; noblesse oblige; breaches of etiquette and the resulting social sanctions; etc.
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577 - ETHICS
abstract ethical ideals (e.g., truth, righteousness, justice); ideals of individual virtue (e.g., honesty, loyalty, industry, courage, temperance, tolerance, filial piety); notions of right and wrong; conception of conscience and character; incidence and causes of, and attitudes toward breaches of ethics (e.g., lying, cowardice, flouting of kinship obligations); conflicts between ideal values and practical considerations; sex-typed attitudes and values; etc.
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578 - INGROUP ANTAGONISMS
prevalence and importance of antagonisms within the society; sources (e.g., economic deprivation. sexual rivalry, political repression, ethnic and religious cleavages. rigor of socialization or social control); expression in individual behavior (e.g., snobbishness, intentional impoliteness, ridicule, insults, vituperation); prevalence, causes and forms of quarrels; participants (e.g., husband and wife, business competitors, rival claimants to property); manifestations (e.g., verbal exchanges, fist fights, duels); reaction of onlookers; repression and control of aggression; etc.
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579 - BRAWLS, RIOTS, AND BANDITRY
prevalence and causes of brawls; types (e.g., drinking brawls, gang fights); running amok; incidence and types of riots (e.g., bread riots, race riots, political riots); methods of control; manifestations of mob psychology; incidence of organized violence (e.g., banditry, piracy); etc.
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58 - MARRIAGE
general statements dealing with several specific aspects of marriage. Marriage is a socially sanctioned relationship between a man and a woman involving economic cooperation and residential and sexual cohabitation. The culturally patterned norms of this relationship regularly specify who may and may not enter into it, how it may be established and terminated, and what each partner may and may not do within it. As a relationship, marriage is to be distinguished sharply from the family, the social group within which it is typically embedded.
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581 - BASIS OF MARRIAGE
theories of the origin, purpose, sanctity, and permanency of marriage; conception of the marriage bond and of the status of matrimony; economic, political, sexual, and romantic factors in marriage; incentives to marriage; qualities desired in a spouse (e.g., beauty, fertility, wealth, industry, skill); relation of marriage to the family, marriage counseling; etc.
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582 - REGULATION OF MARRIAGE
minimum and average age at marriage for each sex; postponement of marriage (e.g., for economic reasons to enable an elder sibling to marry first); marriage laws and regulations; physical and mental bars to marriage; endogamous and exogamous restrictions; primary marriage preference and practice (e.g., with a cross-cousin, hypergamy); explanations and rationalizations of marriage restrictions; tests of marriageability (e.g., of skill, prowess, fertility); occurrence of marriages not classifiable elsewhere; etc.
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583 - MODE OF MARRIAGE
wife-capture (e.g., actual, ceremonial); marriage by exchange (e.g., of sisters); wife-purchase; marriage by payment of consideration (e.g., substantial brideprice, token bride-price, dowry); bride-service (e.g., premarital, postmarital); marriage by gift exchange; marriage by formal or informal initiation of common residence; temporary and trial marriage; elopement (e.g., motives, subsequent adjustments); prevalence and prestige of each mode; relation to rules of residence; conceptualization of bride-price or dowry (e.g., as purchase price, as compensation for loss of services, as guarantee of marriage stability); content and mode of payment of consideration; contributors and recipients; etc.
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584 - ARRANGING A MARRIAGE
marriage preliminaries; courtship (e.g., opportunities, methods); initiation of negotiations (e.g., by youth, by girl, by parents of either); conduct of negotiations (e.g., by parents, through a go-between); marriage brokers; proposal of marriage; methods and consequences of rejection; requirement of consent (e.g., conceptualization, announcement, ceremonial, symbols, duration); status and behavior of betrothed persons; infant betrothal (e.g., prevalence, procedure, nullification); breaking an engagement (e. g., reasons, procedures, consequences); adjustment to death of betrothed (e.g., substitution of a sibling); etc.
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585 - NUPTIALS
wedding (e.g., preferred time and place, preparations, ceremonial, persons attending and officiating); symbolic rites; means of assuring publicity and legality (e.g., banns, licenses); civil and ecclesiastical weddings; variations dependent upon status; associated property transactions (e.g., transfer of gifts, of bride-price); homecoming of bridal couple; consummation (e.g. , immediate or deferred, private or public); defloration rites (e.g., jus primae noctis); concern for virginity of bride (e.g., exhibiting tokens); postwedding events (e.g., honeymoon, exchange of visits) ; status and activities of newly married persons; etc.
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586 - TERMINATION OF MARRIAGE
methods (e.g., desertion, separation, annulment, divorce); prevalence of each; reasons (e.g., cruelty, infidelity, laziness, sterility); initiative and rights of each sex; procedure; residence readjustments; allocation of children (e.g., to mother, to father, to parent least at fault, division by age or sex); property arrangements (e.g., return of bride-price, alimony); subsequent relations of divorced spouses; social attitudes toward separation and divorce; etc.
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587 - SECONDARY MARRIAGES
remarriage of widowed and divorced persons; defferential rules governing secondary marriages (e.g., preference for relative of first spouse, reduction in bride-price, curtailing of ceremonial); levirate and sororate unions (e.g., prevalence, preferences, procedure); allocation of children; etc.
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588 - IRREGULAR UNIONS
marriages in violation of incest taboos, exogamous rules, caste restrictions, or prohibitions of bigamy; common-law marriages; marriages to gods, to deceased persons, to trees, to persons of the same sex; frequency of irregular unions; social reactions; etc.
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589 - CELIBACY
prevalence of bachelors and spinsters; reasons for celibacy; status and activities of unmarried, widowed, and divorced celibates; etc.
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59 - FAMILY
general statements dealing with several specific aspects of the family. The family is a social group consisting of two or more adults of different sex who are married to one another, and of one or more children, own or adopted, of the married parents. It is to be distinguished alike from marriage, the social relationship uniting the parents of opposite sex, and from the household, the social group occupying a dwelling or other domicile. Hence, strictly speaking, a married but childless couple or a widowed or divorced parent with children may form a household but not a family. For status of childless couples, see Categories 581 and 851.
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591 - RESIDENCE
prevailing rule governing the place of residence of a married couple (e.g., matrilocal, avunculocal, patrilocal, neolocal); existence of combined rules (e.g., alternating, bilocal, matri-patrilocal); occurrence of alternative rules under special circumstances; extent to which marriage normally involves the removal of bride or groom to another community (e.g., local exogamy, local endogamy); residence changes by children or unmarried adults (e.g., removal to home of grandparents or maternal uncle); residence changes made late in married life; evidence bearing upon former or current changes in residence rules; etc.
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592 - HOUSEHOLD
typical composition (e.g., nuclear or polygamous family, joint or extended family, clan); range, types, and incidence of variations; extent of inclusion of servants, retainers, and dependent relatives (e.g., aged grandparents, parents-in-law); physical seat (e.g., a single small or large dwelling, a cluster of adjacent huts, a compound); functions and cooperative activities of the household unit as such (i.e., irrespective of variations in family composition); locus of authority; rule of succession; mechanism for adjusting disputes within the household; ownership of dwelling, food stores, and household possessions; etc. Functions associated with particular forms of the family rather than with the household as such will be found in separate categories.
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593 - FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS
patterns of behavior between spouses, between parents and children, between siblings, half-siblings and step-siblings; rights, privileges, and powers of husband, wife, father, mother, son, daughter, brother, and sister; family law; emotional attachments; evidences of ambivalence; etc.
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594 - NUCLEAR FAMILY
degree of emphasis on the social group consisting of a married couple and their children; exclusiveness with which this group is associated with economic, sexual, reproductive, child-rearing, and educational functions; other family functions (e.g., religious, recreational); domicile (e.g., single dwelling, apartment); family authority (e.g., matripotestal, patripotestal) ; family possessions; etc.
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595 - POLYGAMY
relative prevalence of monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, and group marriage; patterning of plural marriages (e.g., prohibited on principle, unpatterned and exceptional, disfavored for economic reasons, confined to persons of wealth or high status,preferential); numerical limitations; prevalence of and preferences for sororal polygyny and fraternal polyandry; distinctive procedures for secondary polygamous marriages; concubinage; organization and activities of polygynous families; relations between co-spouses (e.g., economic cooperation, supremacy of first wife); residential arrangements (e.g., common dwelling, separate quarters for each plural spouse); sexual adjustment (e.g., jealousy, sexual rotation); relations between half siblings and between stepparents and stepchildren in polygamous families; etc.
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596 - EXTENDED FAMILIES
incidence of extended families; prevailing type or types (e.g., matrilocal, avunculocal, patrilocal, and bilocal extended families, fraternal joint families); size and composition; domicile (e.g., compound, single large dwelling); locus of authority; rule of succession (e.g., matrilineal, patrilineal, succession by a younger sibling); collective or individual ownership of dwelling, land, food stores, and household equipment; economic cooperation; routine activities; collective responsibility; cohesive and fissive tendencies; etc.
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597 - ADOPTION
extent to which children are adopted or exchanged; motives and procedure; status of adopted children; reciprocal relations of adoptive parents and adopted children; relations between adoptive siblings; special types of adoption (e.g., adoption of adults, posthumous adoption; ceremonial adoption); etc.
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60 - KINSHIP
general statements dealing with several specific aspects of the general characteristics and component terminology of kinship systems and with the specific patterns of behavior prevailing between kinsmen who do not belong to the same nuclear or polygamous family. For kin relationships within these types of family structure see Category 593.
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601 - KINSHIP TERMINOLOGY
lists and application of kinship terms; genealogical kinship charts; use of kinship terms relative to personal names and teknonymy; differentiation of vocative and referential forms; morphological typology (e.g., elementary derivative, and descriptive terms); number of elementary terms; incidence of denotative and classificatory terms; classificatory distinctions observed and overridden (e.g., generation, sex, affinity, collaterality, bifurcation, polarity, relative age, speaker's sex, decedence); classification of avuncular and nepotic terms (e.g., bifurcate collateral, bifurcate merging, lineal, generation); classification of cousin terminology (e.g., Eskimo, Hawaiian, Iroquois, Crow, Sudanese, Omaha); correlation between terminology and patterns of behavior; historical, structural, and functional interpretations of kinship systems, etc.
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602 - KIN RELATIONSHIPS
conception of kinship; cultural definition of kinship statuses; kinship symbolism and its extensions (e.g., to kings, to gods); interpenetration of kinship with other aspects of culture (e.g., nepotism); analyses of patterned kinship behavior; incidence and interpretations of stereotyped patterns (e.g., joking, respect, avoidance); categories of kin not classifiable elsewhere (e.g., patrikin and matrikin, general affinal relatives) and relationsh-ips among them; reciprocal parent-in-law relations (e.g., consuegro); etc. Data on relationships between specific secondary and tertiary relatives will be found in separate categories.
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603 - GRANDPARENTS AND GRANDCHILDREN
patterns of behavior between grandparents and grandchildren; respective rights, privileges, and powers of the relatives involved; relationships between great uncles and aunts, grand nephews and nieces and further living lineal ancestors and descendants; etc.
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604 - AVUNCULAR AND NEPOTIC RELATIVES
patterns of behavior between paternal and maternal uncles and aunts and fraternal and sororal nephews and nieces; respective rights, privileges, and powers of the relatives involved; special elaborations (e.g., avunculate, amitate); relationships with the spouses of avuncular and nepotic relatives; etc.
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606 - PARENTS-IN-LAW AND CHILDREN-IN-LAW
patterns of behavior between fathers- and mothers-in-law and sons- and daughters-in-law; respective rights, privileges, and powers of the relatives involved; special elaborations (e.g., mother-in-law avoidance); etc.
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607 - SIBLINGS-IN-LAW
patterns of behavior between brothers-in-law, between sisters-in-law, and between brothers- and sisters-in-law; respective rights, privileges, and powers of the relatives involved; relationships with the spouses of siblings-in-law; etc.
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608 - ARTIFICIAL KIN RELATIONSHIPS
creation of kinship ties by artificial means (e.g., blood brotherhood); establishment of kinship through ceremonial sponsorship (e.g., godparents and godchildren); kinship terms employed by artificial kinsmen; reciprocal relations and stereotyped behavior patterns exhibited; etc.
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609 - BEHAVIOR TOWARD NONRELATIVES
cultural definition of nonrelatives; relationships and associated behavior defined by absence of kinship ties; behavior toward strangers and aliens; etc.
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61 - KIN GROUPS
general statements dealing with several specific types of kin groups. In every society, individuals maintain interpersonal relationships, characterized by particular kinship terms and culturally patterned behavior, with each type of relative recognized by the prevailing kinship system. In addition, an individual is normally affiliated with one or more kin groups, each consisting of some, but not all, of his relatives. By "descent" is meant a cultural rule defining the types of relatives with whom an individual is affiliated in a kin group. It need not, and commonly does not, imply that these relatives are more closely akin to him than are those who do not belong to the same group. The major types of kin groups are defined at the beginning of the appropriate categories below.
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611 - RULE OF DESCENT
unilinear rules (e.g., matrilineal, patrilineal); ambilineal descent (i.e., in each successive generation descent is traced through either parent); bilateral descent (i.e., absence of unilinear emphasis); double descent (i.e., concurrent matrilineal and patrilineal descent); anomalous rules (e.g., sexlinked descent); special exceptions (e.g., ambil-anak or matrilineal descent for one generation in default of direct male heirs); degree of correspondence or divergence between the rule of descent and the recognition of kinship; evidences of former or recent transitions in the role of descent; etc.
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612 - KINDREDS AND RAMAGES
presence of bilateral kin groups embracing the near relatives of an individual (i.e., kindreds); ambilineal kin groups consisting of persons tracing descent from a common ancestor (i.e., ramages); composition: reciprocal relations of members; bearing upon the regulation of marriage (e.g., exogamy, agamy); group functions; relations between kindreds or ramages; etc.
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613 - LINEAGES
presence of unilinear kin groups consisting of persons who can trace actual descent from a common ancestor; affiliation (e.g., matrilineal, patrilineal); regulation of marriage (e.g., exogamy, agamy, endogamy); distinguishing characteristics (e.g., names, insignia, totemism, food taboos); traditions; organization; headship and succession; prerogatives and obligations of members (e.g., mutual aid, blood vengeance); solidarity and group responsibility; common property; relationship to extended families and clans; unilinear kin groups intermediate between lineages and sibs; relations between lineages (e.g., subsibs); etc.
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614 - SIBS
presence of unilinear kin groups of traditional, but not actually traceable, common descent; number and distribution; affiliation (e.g., matrilineal, patrilineal); regulation of marriage (e.g., exogamy, agamy, endogamy); distinguishing characteristics (e.g., names, insignia, totemism, food taboos); origin and traditions; organization; headship and succession; prerogatives and obligations of members; solidarity and group responsibility; common property and cult; relationship to clans; unilinear kin groups intermediate between sibs and phratries; relations between sibs; etc.
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615 - PHRATRIES
presence of one or more unilinear kin groups, each of which embraces two or more sibs; affiliation (e.g., matrilineal, patrilineal); regulation of marriage (e.g., exogamy, agamy, endogamy); distinguishing characteristics; origin and traditions; organization; prerogatives and obligations of members; relations between phratries; etc.
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616 - MOIETIES
presence of a unilinear dichotomy, each half of which consists of one or more sibs, which may or may not be organized into phratries; affiliation (e.g., matrilineal, patrilineal); regulation of marriage (e.g., exogamy, agamy, endogamy); distinguishing characteristics (e.g., names, totemism); origin and traditions; prerogatives and obligations of members, rivalrous behavior (e.g., inter-moiety games); pseudo-moieties (e.g., social dichotomies not based on unilinear descent); relations between moieties; etc.
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617 - BILINEAR KIN GROUPS
presence of kin groups consisting of persons united by double descent in the presence of moiety exogamy (e.g., sections, subsections, other "marriage classes"); number (e.g., two-class, four-class, six-class, and eight-class systems) regulation of marriage (e.g., restriction of eligibility to members of a single group); distinguishing characteristics (e.g., names); reciprocal relationships of members; correlation of kinship terms with group membership; characteristics of irregular marriages; relations between bilinear kin groups; etc.
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618 - CLANS
presence of localized kin groups consisting of unilinearly related persons of one sex and their spouses and young children but not including their outmarrying siblings of opposite sex; structural type (e.g., matri-clans, patri-clans, avuncu-clans, amita-clans); size (e.g., clan-barrios, clan-communities) ; number and distribution; subdivision (e.g., into subclans, extended families); organization; headship and succession; functions (e.g., economic, political); reciprocal relations between members; cohesive and fissive tendencies; land holdings; relations between clans; etc. Only data on clan-barrios will normally be filed under this category.
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619 - TRIBE AND NATION
presence or absence of groups larger than the community to which people think they "belong" in an extended kinship sense; basis of identification (e.g., common name, common language, contiguous territory, common culture, tradition of common descent); intratribal intercourse and communication (e.g., trade, intermarriage); degree of development of nationalistic aspirations; etc.
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62 - COMMUNITY
general statements dealing with several aspects of the community and the officials who govern it. The term "community" connotes the maximal group of persons who normally reside together in face-to-face association. Since a community can rarely embrace many more than 1000 individuals, in societies with.larger urban aggregates the term will be confined to subdivisions of.towns or cities which approach communities in size and face-to-face character, e.g., wards, precincts, or residential neighborhoods. In societies lacking political integration above the level of the community information on government will ordinarily be filed in this section rather than under the 63, 64, or 65 categories. In addition to political data on the community, this section includes information on social control, police, and informal justice irrespective of the level of political integration. Data on law, offenses and sanctions will be filed in the 67, 68 and 69 categories respectively whenever formal legal and judicial institutions are found even at the community level. Data on political behavior will be filed in the 66 categories.
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621 - COMMUNITY STRUCTURE
physical type (e.g., migratory band, settled village, neighborhood of scattered households, aggregation of hamlets, ward or other local subdivision of a town); kinship structure (e.g., clan-community, endogamous or exogamous deme, segmented community of associated clan-barrios, unsegmented but homogeneous community, heterogeneous community); socio-political and economic structure and organization; local subdivisions of the community; community population (e.g., mean, range); area of territory exploited (e.g., mean, range); distinguishing characteristics (e.g., name, local dialect, local culture); tendency toward local endogamy or exogamy; cohesive and fissive tendencpes; neighborliness; local pride; etc.
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621.1 - SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ORGANISATION
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621.2 - COMMUNITY STUDY
studies on specific forms of smaller communities; case studies; etc.
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621.3 - SEGMENTED SOCIETY
segmented, egalitarian, and acephalous societies.
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621.4 - COMPLEX SOCIETIES
studies on complex social structures and societies; growing societies; globalization; global vs. local culture; etc.
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622 - HEADMEN
existence of community chiefs or headmen; qualifications; mode of selection (e.g., by seniority, informal acceptance, election, matrilineal or patrilineal succession); functions and activities; domestic establishment; special status and functions of headman's relatives; authority; prerogatives; etc.
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623 - COUNCILS
existence of advisory or deliberative bodies within the community (e.g., council of elders, assembly of adult males); membership; mode of selection; organization; functions (e.g., advisory, judicial, legislative); conduct of sessions; powers and prerogatives; etc.
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624 - LOCAL OFFICIALS
specialized offices within the community (e.g., war chiefs, fire chief, talking chief, recorder of deeds, surveyor, herald, chief priest); qualifications, mode of selection, functions, activities, and prerogatives of each type of official; etc.
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625 - POLICE
specialized law-enforcement organs within the community and higher political units; personnel (e.g., qualifications, appointment, training, organization, promotion, retirement); equipment (e.g., uniform, insignia, arms); functions (e.g., crime prevention and detection, quelling disturbances, traffic control); specialization (e.g., patrolmen, detectives, vice squad); powers (e.g., arrest, detention, summary justice); degree of civilian control; special police organizations (e.g., state police, secret police); private police (e.g., bodyguards, watchmen, industrial police, private detectives); etc.
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626 - SOCIAL CONTROL
incentives to conformity (e.g., expectation of rewards, reciprocity, fear of social and supernatural sanctions, conscience); means of inducing conformity (e.g., example, precept, praise, rewards, warnings, threats); pressure of public opinion; informal mechanisms of social control (e.g., criticism, ridicule, gossip, cursing, sorcery, intentional silence, ostracism); incidence and effectiveness of such sanctions as compared with the application of physical force; etc.
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627 - INFORMAL INGROUP JUSTICE
unformalized mechanisms for adjusting grievances and applying sanctions within the community; private retaliation (e.g., lynching, tarring and feathering, feuding); negotiation and compromise; informal hearings before the headman or local council; etc. Data on justice will be filed under the categories rather than under this category whenever formal judicial institutions are found even at the community level.
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628 - INTER-COMMUNITY RELATIONS
traditional friendships and rivalries between communities; establishing, maintaining, and breaking relations; blood vengeance; feuds; negotiation and composition (e.g., payment of wergild); mediation and arbitration; etc.
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63 - TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION
general statements dealing with several distinct levels of political territorial organization. Statements dealing with territorial hierarchy will be filed in Category 631. Material on political institutions of administrative or territorial units intermediate in size or functional scope between the community and the state, the sovereign or maximal political unit will be filed in the three digit categories below. It will be used only for societies of some political complexity, not for those in which communities are politically independent or for those with petty states emkxacing only a single destrict or a small city with its environs. The individual categories represent increasing levels of size and complexity, but since these are not universally comparable they must be considered subject to modification in order to adapt them to the actual territorial units of particular societies.
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631 - TERRITORIAL HIERARCHY
territorial structure of the state; the various levels of territorial and administrative organization within the state and their reconciliation with the categories below; hierarchy of political officials; integration with larger political units (e.g., Ukraine within the USSR); general nature of the territorial hierarchy (e.g., feudal, administrative, federal); degree of local differentiation in structural forms (e.g., federal districts, free cities, territories, colonies); etc.
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632 - TOWNS
political organization of municipalities (e.g., towns, townships, boroughs, parishes) embracing a number of communities; governmental personnel (e.g., executive, advisory, administrative, legislative); mode of selection (e.g., appointment, election, hereditary succession); jurisdiction, authority, prerogatives, functions, and activities associated with each position; etc.
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633 - CITIES
political organization of urban aggregates larger than towns (e.g., cities, metropolitan districts); governmental personnel (e.g., executive, advisory, administrative, legislative); mode of selection (e.g., appointment, election, hereditary succession); jurisdiction, authority, prerogatives, functions, and activities associated with each position; etc.
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634 - DISTRICTS
political organization of moderately extensive territories embracing a number of settlements or municipalities (e.g., a subtribe, an English or American county, a French department); governmental personnel (e.g., executive, advisory, administrative, legislative); mode of selection (e.g., appointment, election, hereditary succession); jurisdiction, authority, prerogatives, functions, and activities associated with each position; etc.
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635 - PROVINCES
political organization of extended regions embracing a number of districts (e.g., a Persian satrapy, a Roman or Inca province, an American state); governmental personnel (e.g., executive, advisory, administrative, legislative); mode of selection (e.g., appointment, election, hereditary succession); jurisdiction, authority, prerogatives, functions, and activities associated with each position; etc.
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636 - DEPENDENCIES
political organization of dependent regions not organized as provinces (e.g., a colony, a protectorate, a dependent territory); governmental personnel (e.g., executive, advisory, administrative, legislative); mode of selection (e.g., appointment, election, hereditary succession) ; jurisdiction, authority, prerogatives, functions, and activities associated with each position. Information on relations of dependency with colonial powers will be filed in Category 648.
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64 - STATE
general statements dealing with various aspects of the description of governmental institutions at the highest level of political integration, i.e., at the level where ultimate sovereignty resides, whether this be a district of a few communities under a paramount chief or a great empire embracing many nationalities. Material on societies revealing a level of political integration higher than that of the community will be filed here. For political organization on the community level see the 62 categories; for political organization of groups intermediate between the community and the state see the 63 categories.
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641 - CITIZENSHIP
conception of the relationship of the individual to the state; territorial versus gentile affiliation; distinctions between citizens and residents, and between different categories of citizens; rights, duties, privileges, powers, and liabilities of the citizen or subject (e.g., civil liberties, franchise, liability to military service); acquisition of citizenship (e.g., naturalization); loss of citizenship (e.g., through serious crime); notions of civic virtues; etc.
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642 - CONSTITUTION
prevailing system governing the distribution of political power and authority; extent of agreement or disagreement between formal constitutional provisions and actual practice; rights, privileges, and powers assigned or delegated to each organ of government, including the power to alter their distribution; centralization and diffusion of power; constitutional principles (e.g., separation of powers); temporary relaxations or extensions of political authority (e.g., interregnums, war powers) ; form of the state (e.g., empire, union, federal republic, U.N. trusteeship, colony protectorate); form of rule (e.g., autocratic, oligarchic, aristocratic, theocratic, democratic); type of constitution (e.g., written, unwritten) ; framing and amending of constitutions constitutional law; etc.
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643 - CHIEF EXECUTIVE
type of executive (e.g., paramount chief, king, president); plural executives (e.g., peace chief and war leader, king and chief priest, constitutional monarch and prime minister, triumvirate, executive council); authority (e.g., supreme, nomina: dependent upon personal qualities); prestige (e.g., sanctity of person, divine descent); functions (e.g., administrative, judicial military, religious); prerogatives; symbols of office; mode of selection (e.g., by election, seniority, matrilineal or patrilineal succession); qualifications (e.g., age, sex, rank, wealth, prowess, piety); installation; termination of tenure (e.g., deposition, expiration of term, killing of divine king); etc.
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644 - EXECUTIVE HOUSEHOLD
executive residence and domestic establishment; guards, servants, and retainers; court personnel (e.g., number, characteristics, mode of selection, activities, prerogatives); court etiquette and ceremonial; special status and functions of executive's relatives; etc.
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645 - CABINET
ministers and informal advisers to the chief executive; constitutionally elaborated cabinets; specialized cabinet functions (e.g., foreign affairs, war, finance, justice, internal and colonial administration, postal affairs, agriculture, industry, transportation, commerce, education); selection of ministers; authority, activities, and prerogatives of each; relation to parliament and political parties; cabinet meetings; etc.
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646 - PARLIAMENT
presence of deliberative or legislative bodies; type (e.g., council of headmen, popular assembly, oligarchical junta, elective legislature); number of houses (e.g., unicameral legislature, bicameral congress, three estates); membership qualifications; selection (e.g., appointment, election, succession); principle of representation; tenure (e.g., life, term, until deposed or recalled) ; powers and prerogatives; functions (e.g., advisory, legislative); organization; procedure (e.g., introduction, debating, passage of bills); special legislature provisions (e.g., executive veto, judicial review, popular referendum); etc.
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647 - ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES
special bureaus, institutions, boards, and commissions charged with conducting the activities of the state; responsibility (e.g., to chief executive, to cabinet officers, to parliament); organization, personnel, and authority of each agency; civil service; bureaucracy and its characteristics; public administration; etc.
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648 - INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
traditional friendships and rivalries with other states; relations between sovereign and dependent powers; determination of foreign policy (e.g., influence of domestic affairs); establishing, maintaining, and breaking diplomatic relations; foreign services (e.g., consular, diplomatic); specialized personnel (e.g., ambassadors, charges d'affaires, military attaches, consuls); prerogatives (e.g., diplomatic immunity); activities of consuls and diplomats; transmission of intelligence and diplomatic messages; negotiation of treaties, military alliances, foreign aid programs and trade agreements; economic sanctions (e.g., embargoes); adherence to international conventions; international law; peaceful settlement of disputes between states (e.g., arbitration, special peace tribunals); relations with international political organizations (e.g., United Nations); international power politics; peacetime espionage; irredentism; etc.
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648.1 - TRANSNATIONALISM
> Ergebnisliste zu "TRANSNATIONALISM"
65 - GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES
general statements dealing with several aspects of the administrative activities of all governmental agencies usually above the level of the small local community.
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651 - TAXATION AND PUBLIC INCOME
Sources of public income (e.g., gifts and bribes, tribute, registration and license fees, ground rents, profits from public enterprises, fines, confiscations, tolls, taxes); types of taxes (e.g., taxes in kind, labor levies, poll taxes, property taxes, stamp taxes, excise taxes, customs duties, income taxes, inheritance taxes); importance of and revenue from each type; differentiation by administrative level; principles of taxation; tax law; mode of fixing and collecting taxes; specialized personnel (e.g., tax collectors, tax consultants); tax exemptions; etc.
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652 - PUBLIC FINANCE
government budgets and financial estimates; statistics of public revenues and expenditures; government accounts; appropriations and financial legislation; disposition of surplus revenues; methods of meeting deficits (e.g., borrowing, currency inflation, debt repudiation); fiscal policies (e.g., use of public finance to influence foreign trade or employment); public debt and debt service; issuance and manipulation of currency; relations of the treasury with private banks; government banks; etc.
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653 - PUBLIC WORKS
government construction of dams, reservoirs, canals, ship channels, railways, highways, sewers, and public buildings; method of accomplishment (e.g., by labor drafts, by contract with private entrepreneurs); public works policies (e.g., to relieve unemployment, to increase public revenues); maintenance of public works; etc.
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654 - RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
government-supported research in applied science (e.g., agriculture, fisheries, mining, forestry, nutrition, medicine); public extension and demonstration services; governmean subsidies to weak or essential industries (e.g., airlines, shipping, agriculture): exploration; coast, geodetic, and geological surveys; meteorological research and weather stations; etc.
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655 - GOVERNMENT ENTERPRISES
government monopolies (e.g., salt, tobacco); enterprises operated by the state or its political subdivisions (e.g., postal system, telephone and telegraph services, railways, power plants, banks); organization and mode of operation of each; types of government enterprise; etc.
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656 - GOVERNMENT REGULATION
policies underlying government regulation of private enterprises and activities; general aspects of supervision, restriction, and enforcement; specific instances of government regulation not classifiable elsewhere; etc.
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657 - PUBLIC WELFARE
pensions and welfare services for government employees; government care and administration of dependent ethnic groups (e.g., reservations); extent of public support of social work, welfare, relief, social insurance, and public health; etc.
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658 - PUBLIC EDUCATION
extent of direct and indirect public support to education; government sponsorship and support of the fine arts, pure science, libraries, and museums; etc.
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659 - MISCELLANEOUS GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES
governmental activities not classifiable elsewhere (e.g., census taking, national and state forests, government support of established churches, general church-state relations); expenditures on public safety (e.g., military establishment, police, fire protection, disaster relief); etc.
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66 - POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
general statements dealing with several specific types of political behavior. Since informal mechanisms of social control do not operate effectively above the level of the community, all government at higher levels depends upon the authority and power to supplement such mechanisms with organized force. Hence political behavior, as opposed to other forms of social behavior, is characterized by the exercise or manipulation of such power, or the striving for it, as a means of accomplishing goals by force or the threat thereof. For ethnopolitical theory see Category 829.
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661 - EXPLOITATION
exercise of their power by holders of political office to further personal goals, whether materialistic, psychological, or ideological; perquisites of office (e.g., exceptional income and material comforts, special sexual or marital privileges, unusual honors or deference); use of office for self-aggrandizement (e.g., exhibitionism, extortion of bribes, protection of vice, acceptance of commissions for services rendered); employment of power to force others to conform to personal ethical or religious convictions; suppression of rivals (e.g., purges); oppression of opponents; nepotism; protection of vested interests; etc.
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662 - POLITICAL INTRIGUE
use of the techniques of manipulative mobility to wrest favors from the holders of power or to obtain political preferment; flattery and ingratiation; use of bribery; deals; palace intrigue; opportunism; "playing politics"; etc.
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663 - PUBLIC SERVICE
use of nonexploitative methods to retain a political office or secure a higher one; exercise of economy, suppression of corruption and vice, exhibition of administrative skill, statesmanship, and comparable methods of gaining and keeping mass support as a bulwark against opposing political forces; appealing to the intelligence and conscience of the public; etc.
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664 - PRESSURE POLITICS
exertion of organized pressure on holders of political office to use their power to further group goals; pressure groups; lobbying; organized manifestations of group solidarity (e.g., mass demonstrations, letter-writing campaigns); use of publicity channels and propaganda techniques; adoption of labor tactics (e.g., picketing); etc.
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665 - POLITICAL PARTIES
organization for the purpose of acquiring and retaining political power; political factions; organized political parties (e.g., number, composition, leadership, objectives, political party ideologies); party organization (e.g., national, regional, and local committees); methods of recruiting and rewarding members (e.g., spoils system); nomination procedure (e.g., caucuses, primaries, conventions, slates); special organization during electoral campaigns; integration of political parties with the structure of the state and its subdivisions; etc.
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666 - ELECTIONS
voting; informal methods of selecting public affairs officials; organized electoral systems (e.g., election districts, registration of voters, requirements for nomination, polling places, balloting, precautions against fraud) ; election campaigns (e.g., fund raising, campaign platforms, speaking tours, use of publicity and propaganda); voting behavior and its determinants; electoral intimidation and fraud; methods of minority control (e.g., gerrymandering, rotten-borough system, poll taxes); etc.
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667 - POLITICAL MACHINES
special organizations for the control of elections and offices and the distribution of spoils; personal and party machines; rewards to members and controlled voters (e.g., jobs, contracts, favors, police protection, petty graft); mechanisms of mobility within the machine (e.g., ward heeling, getting out the vote); relations with the underworld; extent of of political corruption; attempts at reform; etc.
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668 - POLITICAL MOVEMENTS
mass movements for substantial political change; types (e.g., messianic, nativistic, nationalistic, radical, revolutionary, reactionary); organization (e.g., into political parties, underground cells); leadership; doctrines, policies, and programs (e.g., socialism, communism, fascism); overt activities (e.g., passive resistance, propaganda, pressure politics, mass demonstrations, fomenting of labor disturbances); covert activities (e.g., infiltration, circulation of disparaging rumors, secret distribution of inflammatory literature, "front" organizations); proportion of population affected; etc.
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668.1 - MESSIANIC, NATIVISTIC, AND POLITICO-RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS
charismatic leaders; cargo-cult; ghost dance; kastom etc.
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668.2 - LIBERATION, INDEPENDENCE, AND OPPOSITION MOVEMENTS
overt activities; leadership; organization; etc.
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669 - REVOLUTION
attempt to seize political power by violent means; types (e.g., palace revolts, fifth columns, insurrections, class uprisings, civil wars); causes and objectives; rationalizations; participants; tactics (e.g., seizure of leading opponents, of military strongholds, of strategic urban utilities); counterrevolutionary tactics and movements; results of success and failure; etc.
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67 - LAW
general statements dealing with several aspects of customary or imposed norms of behavior for violations of which sanctions may be enforced by some agent or agency of the politically organized community or state, and not alone through informal mechanisms of social control.
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671 - LEGAL NORMS
extent of differentiation of social norms enforceable by some organ of politically constituted society from those enforced only by informal social control; conception of law (e.g., as precedent, as a body of absolute or relative principles); corcparative prevalence of customary or common law and of "made" laws (e.g., edicts, decrees, ordinances, statutes, constitutions, binding judicial or administrative decisions, imposed taboos, divine revelations); lawgivers; law codes; legal categories (e.g., civil and criminal law); legal rules and administrative law; jurisprudence; uniform and multiple systems of law; etc.
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672 - LIABILITY
conception of the liability of individuals and groups for breaches of legal norms; extension of liability to others (e.g., parents, spouse, sibmates); exemptions from legal responsibility (e.g., minors, insane persons, chiefs); recognition of extenuating or aggravating circumstances (e.g., youth or old age, sex or class status of aggressor or victim, accident, self-defense, intent, negligence, recidivism); liability of animals or inanimate objects (e.g., "the ox that gored) ; etc.
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673 - WRONGS
general definitions of acts which violate legal norms; major categories of breaches (e.g., crimes, torts, violations of contract, sins); recognized graduations in the gravity of offenses (e.g., malum prohibitum and malum in se, misdemeanors and felonies, venial and deadly sins); etc.
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674 - CRIME
prevalence and incidence of crime; common and rare offenses; crime statistics (e.g., number of reported violations, arrests, and convictions for various offenses); types of offenders (e.g., juvenile delinquents, criminal castes; narcotic addicts, professional criminals); motives in crime (e.g., greed, frustration, sexual jealousy); contributory social factors (e.g., poverty, oppression); criminology; etc.
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675 - CONTRACTS
conception of contractual relations; agreements, bargains, promises, and their enforceability; consideration; rights, privileges, and powers of contracting parties; procedure in the conclusion of contracts (e.g., presence of witnesses); terms and stipulations; types of contracts (e.g., legal forms, oral agreements, covenants); etc.
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676 - AGENCY
conception of the delegation of authority; implications and limitations; rights, privileges, and powers of principal and agent; responsibility of a principal for the acts of his agent; intrusting and revocation; commissions and fees of agents; types of agents (e.g., factors); etc.
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68 - OFFENSES AND SANCTIONS
general statements covering several distinct definitions, in legal or other form, of specific actionable or punishable offenses and for data on the general and specific incidence of punitive sanctions. For criminal behavior see Category 674.
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681 - SANCTIONS
incidence and distribution of the major types of sanctions; capital punishment (e.g., hanging, decapitation, strangling, burning, dismembering); corporal punishment (e.g., flogging, mutilation, torture); property sanctions (e.g., damages, fines, confiscation); public humiliation (e.g., ridicule, pillory); deprivation of civil rights (e.g., enslavement, outlawry, imprisonment); theory of sanctions; systematization of sanctions (e.g., wergild, criminal codes); purpose of sanctions (e.g., compensation, punishment, prevention); penology; recipient of fines, damages, confiscated property (e.g., state, injured party); etc.
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682 - OFFENSES AGAINST LIFE
definitions, incidence of, and sanctions for homicide (e.g., murder, manslaughter); punishments for attempted homicide and attempted suicide; penalties for abortion and infanticide; etc.
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683 - OFFENSES AGAINST THE PERSON
definitions, incidence of, and sanctions for acts of physical and verbal aggression (e.g., assault, battery, mayhem, slander, libel); penalties for sorcery; etc.
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684 - SEX AND MARITAL OFFENSES
definitions, incidence of, and penalties for sex offenses (e.g., fornication, seduction, adultery, prostitution, incest, miscegenation, rape, sodomy, bestiality); punishments for marital and family offenses (e.g., nonsupport, desertion, neglect of children); etc.
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685 - PROPERTY OFFENSES
definitions, incidence of, and penalties for stealing (e.g., theft, poaching, robbery, burglary, fraud, embezzlement); definitions of and punishment for property damage (e.g., trespass, arson, malicious mischief); etc.
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686 - NONFULFILLMENT OF OBLIGATIONS
penalties for breach of contract and nonpayment of debts; definitions, incidence of, and sanctions for criminal negligence; etc.
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687 - OFFENSES AGAINST THE STATE
definitions, incidence of, and punishments for political offenses (e.g., treason, espionage, illegal entry, conspiracy, lese majesty, electoral fraud, malfeasance in office); penalties for military offenses (e.g., insubordination, cowardice, desertion, mutiny); definitions of and punishments for judicial offenses (e.g., giving or receiving bribes, perjury, subornation, barratry, contempt of court); penalties for monetary or fiscal offenses (e.g., counterfeiting, falsification of records or documents, smuggling, tax evasion); etc.
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688 - RELIGIOUS OFFENSES
definitions, incidence of, and punishments for blasphemy and impiety; penalties for specific sins of omission and commission (e.g., ritual offenses, violation of taboos); etc.
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689 - SOCIAL OFFENSES
definitions, incidence of, and punishments for quarrelsomeness, disorderly conduct, and commission of nuisances; penalties for drunkenness, prohibited drug use, and abnormal behavior; patterned punishments for lying and other breaches of ethics; punishments for indolence and noncooperation; etc.
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69 - JUSTICE
general statements dealing with several aspects of the formal procedures and the authorized agents of the community or state through which violations of legal norms are determined and sanctions imposed. For social control and informal mechanisms of justice see the 62 categories.
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691 - LITIGATION
incidence of civil actions; statistics of civil cases; causes and types of litigation; abuses (e.g., barratry, ambulance chasing) ; etc.
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692 - JUDICIAL AUTHORITY
extent to which the settlement of disputes, redress of injuries, and application of sanctions is withdrawn from the parties concerned and vested in some constituted authority; degree of identification or separation of judicial and other constituted authority; specialized judges and courts; judicial system (e.g., courts of original and appellate jurisdiction, courts of law and equity, civil and criminal courts); jurisdiction of each type of court; judicial powers and prerogatives; etc.
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693 - LEGAL AND JUDICIAL PERSONNEL
specialized law-enforcement personnel other than police (e.g., sheriffs, bailiffs, constables, posses, coroners); attorneys at law (e.g., counselors, barristers); bar associations; justices of the peace; court officials (e.g., judges, prosecuting attorneys, public defenders, clerks, court reporters); grand and petit jurors; parole and probation officers; executioners; qualifications, selection, functions, and prerogatives of each; payment (e.g., fees, commissions, salaries); legal ethics; etc.
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694 - INITIATION OF JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS
complaints and accusations; methods of detection; bringing suit; indictments (e.g., by grand jury); warrants and summonses; arrests and detention; bail; writs (e.g., of habeas corpus); pleas and demurrers; etc.
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695 - TRIAL PROCEDURE
types of court procedure (e.g., summary, criminal, civil, appellate); arraignment; testimony (e.g., witnesses, rules of evidence); arguments and summations; special tests (e.g., oaths, ordeals, torture, judicial duels); judicial decisions (e.g., by judge, jury, arbitration); judgments and sentences; appeals; etc.
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696 - EXECUTION OF JUSTICE
manner in which judgments and sentences are executed (e.g., self-help, execution by special officials); enforcement of contracts and debts; writs (e.g., of execution, attachment, replevin); probation; evasions of justice (e.g., procedural loopholes, bribery, flight, asylum); etc.
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697 - PRISONS AND JAILS
places of imprisonment and detention; precautions against escape; personnel (e.g., jailers, wardens, chaplains, guards); differential treatment of inmates (e.g., women, trusties); organization of penal institutions; prison rules and routines; rewards and punishments for behavior; terms; paroles and pardons; prison labor; penal labor camps; special prisons (e.g., prisons for political offenders, military prisons); etc.
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698 - SPECIAL COURTS
courts with special functions (e.g., courtsmartial, claims courts, probate courts, juvenile courts, admiralty courts); arbitration tribunals; commissions with judicial authority; special personnel, jurisdiction, powers, and procedure of each type; etc.
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70 - ARMED FORCES
general statements covering several distinct aspects of specialized military organization. Generalized data on unspecialized military organization will be filed under Category 701, except for aspects sufficiently elaborated in the particular society to merit special treatment under one of the succeeding categories.
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701 - MILITARY ORGANIZATION
purpose of military organization (e.g., defense, internal police, prestige); composition of the armed forces in peace and war; standing army and navy (e.g., size, disposition, state of preparedness); eligibility and liability for military service (e.g., age and sex qualifications); status of warriors (e.g., prerogatives, disabilities); military leaders (e.g., qualifications, mode of selection, authority, functions); extent of differentiation of military from political organization; coordination of armed forces (e.g., of a war party, an army, a complex military establishment); hierarchical organization (e.g., gradations in rank, chain of command); system of payment, promotion, and retirement; furloughs and leave; special organizations (e.g., military societies); length of time in service; etc.
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702 - RECRUITMENT AND TRAINING
induction into the armed forces (e.g., voluntary enlistment, conscription); screening (e.g., tests of fitness, medical examinations); training (e.g., instruction, drill practice with weapons, tactical maneuvers); special elaborations (e.g., recruiting stations, manuals of arms); social status; etc.
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703 - DISCIPLINE AND MORALE
military virtues (e.g., courage, obedience); punitive and summary judicial powers of military leaders; military rewards (e.g., medals, badges, special privileges); level of morale in the armed forces; integrating and demoralizing factors; special techniques of instilling morale; etc.
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704 - GROUND COMBAT FORCES
specific organization of the army; high command; specialized combat branches (e.g., infantry, cavalry, artillery, tank corps); combat units (e.g., squads, companies, battalions, regiments, divisions); composition, organization, and special functions of each; specialized combat forces (e.g., scouts, marines, anti-aircraft defense units); etc.
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705 - SUPPLY AND COMISSARIAT
special organization of supply services (e.g., quartermaster corps, naval and air transport services); system of procurement and distribution; rations and their issuance; mess arrangements; specialized personnel (e.g., cooks, stewards, supply officers); etc.
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706 - NAVY
specific organization of the navy; high command; combat units (e.g., scouting and task forces); organization of a ship (e.g., command, complement, line and engineering specialization, communications personnel); fleet auxiliaries; organization of ports, yards, depots, and other shore establishments; special naval forces (e.g., coast guard, submarine services); etc.
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707 - AIR FORCES
organization of air forces; high command; combat and administrative units (e.g., strategic and tactical forces, wings, groups, squadrons); organization of personnel; organization of ground services; etc.
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708 - AUXILIARY CORPS
organization and functions of specialized noncombat services (e.g., medical and sanitary corps, army engineers, labor battalions, signal corps, intelligence services, military police); other specialized personnel (e.g., paymasters, chaplains, judge advocates, military government officers, specialists in communications and psychological warfare) ; etc.
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71 - MILITARY TECHNOLOGY
general statements on several aspects of technology peculiar to war. Technological processes and products used similarly in war and in industry are described under appropriate headings elsewhere.
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711 - MILITARY ENGINEERING
scientific knowledge of military technology; research and experimentation in applied military science; development and testing of new weapons and equipment; specialized techniques of army engineers; etc.
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712 - MILITARY INSTALLATIONS
defensive fortifications; harbor and coast defenses (e.g., coast artillery emplacements, antisubmarine nets); radar and antiaircraft installations; military camps and posts; arsenals; naval stations and bases; military airfields; missile bases; construction, maintenance, and distribution of military installations; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MILITARY INSTALLATIONS"
713 - ORDNANCE
specialized military weapons; description of complex weapons (e.g., small arms, artillery, poison gas, flamethrowers, torpedoes, mines, bombs, rockets); description of accessory equipment (e.g., cavalry gear, gun mounts and carriages, armor, range finders, ammunition); ordnance stocks; etc.
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714 - UNIFORM AND ACCOUTERMENT
military garb (e.g., hair style, body armor, body painting, amulets and charms, uniform); description of personal equipment (e.g., canteen, haversack, helmet, gas mask, first-aid kit, shields); distinctions (e.g., according to rank, between different corps and services, between parade and field uniforms and equipment); etc.
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715 - MILITARY VEHICLES
description of specialized military vehicles (e.g., armored trains, tanks, jeeps, amphibious vehicles); number, mode of operation, and special uses of each; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MILITARY VEHICLES"
716 - NAVAL VESSELS
description of specialized naval vessels (e.g., war canoes, carriers, destroyers, submarines, mine layers, landing craft); motive power, speed, armament, special equipment, and functions of each; fleet statistics (e.q., number and disposition of units); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "NAVAL VESSELS"
717 - MILITARY AIRCRAFT
description of specialized military air and space craft; motive power, speed, armament, and special equipment of each type; special adaptations (e.g., catapults, carrier arresting gear); number and disposition of military aircraft; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MILITARY AIRCRAFT"
718 - SPECIAL MILITARY EQUIPMENT
description of communications devices specialized for military use (e.g., field telephones, portable radio equipment, semaphore and blinker systems); special navigation and detection devices and equipment (e.g., radar, loran, special electronic gear); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SPECIAL MILITARY EQUIPMENT"
719 - MUNITIONS INDUSTRIES
industries specializing in the manufacture of ordnance and other military supplies and equipment; ownership and operation; organization of labor and production; regulation; degree of economic self-sufficiency in munitions manufacture; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MUNITIONS INDUSTRIES"
72 - WAR
general statements dealing with several aspects of the conduct and results of contests between independent political units (e.g., city-states, tribes) involving the use of organized military force. For ingroup violence see Category 578; for revolution and civil war see Category 669.
> Ergebnisliste zu "WAR"
721 - INSTIGATION OF WAR
frequency of war (e.g., common, rare, unknown); participating groups; military preparedness; scale, severity, and duration of wars; small-scale military operations (e.g., raids for slaves or cattle, headhunting, privateering); conception of war (e.g., as glorious, as holy, as wrong but inevitable, as less debilitating than peace); prevalent motives for waging war (e.g., vengeance, self-defense, aggrandizement, prestige); material gains (e.g., booty, trophies, slaves, women, mercantile advantages, territory); predominance of offensive or defensive warfare; decision as to war (e.g., deliberations, negotiations); methods of initiating hostilities (e.g., challenges, declarations of war, attacks without warning); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "INSTIGATION OF WAR"
722 - WARTIME ADJUSTMENTS
emergency adjustments (e.g., martial law) ; wartime restrictions; disposition and behavior of noncombatants (e.g., removal to place of security, mobilization for war industries, observance of special taboos) ; means of maintaining civilian morale; civilan defense activities; economic readjustments to war; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "WARTIME ADJUSTMENTS"
723 - STRATEGY
principles of military, naval, and aerial strategy; nontechnological aspects of military science; planning of wars and campaigns; coordination of military forces; planned use of propaganda and psychological warfare; economic warfare; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "STRATEGY"
724 - LOGISTICS
wartime procurement of military supplies; logistic planning; organization of land, sea, and air transport; expediting of supplies; depots, dumps, and supply trains; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "LOGISTICS"
725 - TACTICS
specialized tactics of ground, air, and naval forces; combined tactics; offensive tactical maneuvers; defensive tactics (e.g., trench warfare, use of underground installations); special tactics (e.g., parachute attacks, landing operations, raids in depth, tactics of resistance movements); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "TACTICS"
726 - WARFARE
wartime mobilization; departure of troops (e.g., public ceremonies, rituals for securing supernatural aid, exhortations to bravery); military expeditions (e.g., marching, scouts, protection of flanks and rear, camping, mounting of guards, foraging, billeting); types of combat (e.g., skirmishes, surprise attacks, assaults, pitched battles, guerrilla warfare, siege operations); joining battle (e.g., choice of time and place, ritual preliminaries and precautions); deploying and coordination of forces; special characteristics of naval and air combat; scorched earth policy; military conventions and rules of war (e.g., flag of truce); personal encounters (e.g., duels between champions); termination of combat (e.g., after first casualty, after desperate last stand); tactical withdrawals; flight and pursuit; surrender; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "WARFARE"
727 - AFTERMATH OF COMBAT
number and nature of casualties; treatment of own casualties (e.g., retrieving and disposal of dead, care of wounded); treatment of enemy casualties (e.g., despoiling, mutilation, killing); taking of trophies; treatment of captives and prisoners (e.g., slaughter, torture, mutilation, release, exchange, holding for ransom, adoption, enslavement, sacrifice); punishment of enemy leaders; military occupation and military government; homecoming after war (e.g., return trip, reception of returning warriors); home reactions to victory and defeat; victory celebrations (e.g., dances, feasts, memorials); demobilization; resumption of normal life; reconstruction of war damage; compensation for casualties; refugees; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "AFTERMATH OF COMBAT"
728 - PEACEMAKING
truce and peace negotiations; peace conferences; terms (e.g., tribute, indemnities, cession of territory, demilitarization); ratification of peace terms; consolidation of annexed territory; transplantation of conquered populations; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PEACEMAKING"
729 - WAR VETERANS
status and activities of military veterans; special prerogatives (e.g., political and economic preferment); military pensions and soldiers' bonuses; special institutions (e.g., old soldiers' homes, veterans' hospitals); veterans' organizations; reunions; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "WAR VETERANS"
73 - SOCIAL PROBLEMS
general statements dealing with several distinct types of major social problems and with the incidence, treatment, and care accorded each major type. See the 74 categories for coordinated welfare programs and highly institutionalized methods of care and relief.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SOCIAL PROBLEMS"
731 - DISASTERS
prevalence and major types of disasters (e.g., earthquakes, epidemics, conflagrations, typhocns, tornadoes, floods, droughts, famines, insect plagues); explanations and rationalizations; incidence of disastrous accidents (e.g., train wrecks); reactions to disasters; organization of relief (e.g., private, public); role of special relief ayencies (e.g., Red Cross); emergency measures; reconstruction; preventive measures (e.g., flood control); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DISASTERS"
732 - HANDICAPPED
incidence of sexious physical defects (e.g., blindness, deaf-mutism, crippling infirmities and deformities, feeblemindedness); interpretation of deformities and defects; care and treatment of handicapped (e.g., neglect, persecution, euthanasia, home care, charity, institutionalization); organization, operation, and financial support of special institutions for handicapped adjustments to defects (e.g., seeing-eye dogs, prosthetic devices, hearing aids); sterilization of handicapped, etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "HANDICAPPED"
733 - ALCOHOLISM AND DRUG ADDICTION
incidence of excessive or chronic use of alcohol or narcotics; social problems arising therefrom (e.g., poverty, delinquency, broken homes); care and treatment of alcoholics and drug addicts (e.g., neglect, attempts at restraint and cure); special institutions for the treatment and cure of alcoholics and addicts: temperance movements; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ALCOHOLISM AND DRUG ADDICTION"
734 - INVALIDISM
chronic illness and invalidism (e.g., mental illness, tuberculosis, multiple sclerosis); prolonged convalescence after illness; treatment and care (e.g., hospitalization, neglect, euthanasia, nursing, diet, rest); home care and institutionalization; sanatoriums, mental institutions, convalescent homes; economic problems arising from chronic illness; relief of the chronically ill and their families (e.g., charity, public relief); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "INVALIDISM"
735 - POVERTY
prevalence and definition of poverty; causes (e.g., low income, unemployment, sickness, alcoholism, improvidence, indoindolence); social attitudes toward poverty; begging and beggars; poor relief (e.g., almsgiving, private charity, public relief); special institutions for the poor (e.g., almshouses); support of institutions (e.g., municipal, ecclesiastical, private endowment); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "POVERTY"
736 - DEPENDENCY
incidence of dependency (e.g., orphans, widows, deserted and divorced wives, families of defectives and alcoholics, families of invalids and criminals); attitudes toward dependency; care and support of dependents (e.g., adoption, support by relatives, private charity, public relief); special institutions for dependents (e.g., orphanages); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DEPENDENCY"
737 - OLD AGE DEPENDENCY
incidence of dependency for the aged of both sexes; care and support of the aged (e.g., support by relatives, private charity, public relief, institutionalization); special institutions for the aged (e.g., old people's homes); support of institutions (e.g., private, municipal, fraternal, ecclesiastical) etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "OLD AGE DEPENDENCY"
738 - DELINQUENCY
incidence of petty delinquency (e.g., hoodlumism and vandalism, inveterate gambling, sex delinquency, nonsupport); prevalence, causes, and types of juvenile delinquency; attitudes toward and methods of dealing with petty and juvenile delinquents; special institutions (e.g., reformatories, houses of correction); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DELINQUENCY"
74 - HEALTH AND WELFARE
general statements covering several aspects of the more highly institutionalized adjustments to social problems and disease.
> Ergebnisliste zu "HEALTH AND WELFARE"
741 - PHILANTHROPIC FOUNDATIONS
private endowments for relief of distress, social welfare, health, and education; church endowments for philanthropic and educational purposes; corporate foundations for the promotion of health, welfare, science, and education; special philanthropic organizations (e.g., community trusts); organization, administration, and policies of foundations; finance (e.g., gifts, investments, tax exemption); fundraising methods; distribution of funds; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PHILANTHROPIC FOUNDATIONS"
742 - MEDICAL RESEARCH
extent of research in medicine, nutrition, and public health; integration with hospitals and medical schools; specialized personnel (e.g., researchers, technicians); laboratories and equipment; research institutes; administration of research; special objectives (e.g., control of cancer, of tuberculosis); finance (e.g., government aid, foundation grants, public drives); fund-raising organization and techniques (e.g., Christmas seals, march of dimes); allocation of funds; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MEDICAL RESEARCH"
743 - HOSPITALS AND CLINICS
number and availability of special institutions for medical care; organization and operation of clinics and hospitals; personnel (e.g., administrative and medical staffs, nurses, orderlies, technicians); equipment; special services; charges and fees; sources of financial support (e.g., governmental, ecclesiastical, private); ambulatory clinics.
> Ergebnisliste zu "HOSPITALS AND CLINICS"
744 - PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION
organized measures for the prevention and control of infectious diseases and epidemics; degree of development and adequacy of public health services; specialized personnel (e.g., sanitary engineers, quarantine officers, inspectors); public health laboratories; public health activities (e.g., milk and meat inspection, imposition and enforcement of quarantines, control and extermination of disease vectors, sanitation); special control programs (e.g., yellow fever, venereal disease); public health legislation (e.g., pure food and drug acts); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION"
745 - SOCIAL INSURANCE
prevalent types of social insurance (e.g., retirement pensions, old age pensions, sickness and maternity benefits, unemployment benefits); contributions (e.g., from employers, beneficiaries, government); administration of funds; premiums and payments; industrial and business pension and benefit systems; social insurance legislation; systems sponsored and operated by the state (e.g., socialized medicine); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SOCIAL INSURANCE"
746 - PUBLIC ASSISTANCE
tax-supported agencies for the administration and dispensing of relief; categprical aid (e.g., grants to needy mothers, invalids, crippled children, dependent old people); unemployment relief (e.g., doles, public works programs); public welfare policies; justifications of public welfare as opposed to private relief; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PUBLIC ASSISTANCE"
747 - PRIVATE WELFARE AGENCIES
private fund-raising organizations (e.g, community chests); private, semi-private, fraternal, and ecclesiastical operating relief agencies (e.g, Red Cross, Salvation Army, family welfare organizations); welfare institutions not elsewhere described (e.g., CARE, settlement houses, city missions, day nurseries, church community houses); organization, administration, financial support, and activities of each type; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PRIVATE WELFARE AGENCIES"
748 - SOCIAL WORK
specialization of training and techniques in the administration of relief and welfare activities; personnel (e.g., qualifications, education, organization); special types of social workers (e.g., visiting nurses, psychiatric social workers); employment of social workers by private, ecclesiastical, and governmental welfare organizations; social work policies, activities, and methods (e.g., family case work); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SOCIAL WORK"
75 - SICKNESS
general statements covering several aspects of sickness. Ideas of the causation of sickness, with methods of cure, and with specialists in the treatment of disease, including bodily injuries and functional or neurotic ailments will be filed below in the appropriate three digit category.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SICKNESS"
751 - PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
conception of health and hygiene; health regimen; protective measures (e.g., sun tan lotion, amulets, charms, spells, prophylaxis, immunization); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PREVENTIVE MEDICINE"
752 - BODILY INJURIES
theory of the causation of mishaps and accidental injuries; first aid; treatment of wounds, cuts, burns, frostbite, bruises, and sprains (e.g., ligatures, bandages, poultices, massage, cauterization); treatment of snake and insect bites; antidotes for poisoning; treatment of fractures (e.g., bonesetting, trepanation); surgical operations; use of sterile techniques; adjustments to pain (e.g., anesthetics); dental surgery; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "BODILY INJURIES"
753 - THEORY OF DISEASE
extent of the attribution of disease to natural causes, to sorcery, and to supernatural aggression; prevalent theories of the supernatural causation of disease (e.g., soul loss, spirit possession, object intrusion, poison, evil eye, violation of taboos, pollution or contagion); special notions about loathsome diseases (e.g., leprosy); scientific theories of disease (e.g., transmission through germs); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "THEORY OF DISEASE"
754 - SORCERY
ideas of the causation of disease and death through witchcraft and sorcery; actual and reputed prevalence of sorcery; motives for practicing sorcery; methods (e.g., bone pointing, manipulation of effigies, exuvial magic, invocation of spirit aids); employment of sorcerers; witches, wizards, and sorcerers; physical, social and mental characteristics; sources of power, training; organization; special types of sorcerers (e.g., werewolves and other were-animals, vampires, individuals with the evil eye); evidence as to the efficacy of sorcery; reactions to sorcerers (e.g., witch hunts); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SORCERY"
755 - MAGICAL AND MENTAL THERAPY
individual therapeutic efforts (e.g., acts of faith, self-analysis); resorting to a specialized practitioner (e.g., circumstances, arrangements, payments); diagnosis (e.g., divination, interpretation of symptoms); therapeutic procedure (e.g., shamanistic seances, analytic couch); methods (e.g., interpretation of dreams, countermagic, exorcism; recapture of soul, sucking out of intrusive object, resort to spirit helpers); prescriptions (e.g., medication, purification, expiation, imposition of taboos); prognosis; ritual banishment of disease (e.g., scapegoat); faith healing; scientific systems of psychotherapy (e.g., psychoanalysis, psychiatry, mental hygiene); evidence as to the effectiveness of magical and mental therapy; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MAGICAL AND MENTAL THERAPY"
756 - PSYCHOTHERAPISTS
prevalent types of psychotherapists (e.g., shamans, faith healers, psychoanalysts, clinical psychologists) ; physical, mental, and social characteristics; source of power (e.g., inheritance, spirit helpers, specialized knowledge); training and initiation; prerogatives and disabilities; special paraphernalia and behavior; source of support (e.g., gifts, fees); penalties for failure; relations between practitioners (e.g,, rivalry, organization); shamanism as a religious complex special organizations (e.g., medicine societies, psychoanalytic societies) ; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PSYCHOTHERAPISTS"
757 - MEDICAL THERAPY
extent of differentiation of medical from magical and mental therapy; home remedies and self-medication; resorting to a specialized practitioner (e.g., circumstances, arrangements, payments); diagnosis (e.g., examination for symptoms, diagnostic aids); consultations; therapeutic principles (e.g., counterirritation, homeopathy); therapeutic methods (e.g., bloodletting, administration of cathartics and emetics, acupuncture, medication); prescribed regimen and remedies for specific complaints (e.g., fevers, colds, toothache, indigestion, rheumatism, infectious diseases); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MEDICAL THERAPY"
758 - MEDICAL CARE
regimen and care of sick persons (e.g., diet, rest, isolation); apparatus and paraphernalia of medical care (e.g., clinical thermometers, bed pans); general availability of medical advice, treatment, and care (e.g., organization, finance, services); etc. This category is intended for general information on medical care. For specialized data see relevant categories in the 73, 74, and 75 divisions.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MEDICAL CARE"
759 - MEDICAL PERSONNEL
prevalent types of medical specialists (e.g., herbalists, diagnosticians, physicians, surgeons, dentists, nurses, technicians, midwives); qualifications, training, status, and activities of each type; prerogatives and disabilities of medical personnel; special garb, paraphernalia, and behavior; remuneration (e.g., fees, salaries); penalties for failure; medical organizations; professional ethics; medical cults (e.g., acupuncture, osteopathy); examination and licensing of medical practitioners; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MEDICAL PERSONNEL"
76 - DEATH
general statements dealing with several distinct aspects of death including ideas about death and with practices which accompany and follow the occurrence of death. For beliefs concerning a life after death see Category 775.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DEATH"
761 - LIFE AND DEATH
theories about life and death; notion of a life force; conception of death (e.g., as natural, as unnatural); beliefs about the cause of death; attitude towards death (e.g., confidence, fear, fatalism); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "LIFE AND DEATH"
762 - SUICIDE
incidence of suicide; motives (e.g., humiliation, thwarted love); common methods (e.g., jumping, drowning, shooting, poison); stereotyped methods (e.g., suttee, hara-kiri); justifications; attitude toward suicides; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SUICIDE"
763 - DYING
omens and predictions of death; notions about dying; recognizing the approach of death; settlement of affairs; assembling of relatives; attempts to postpone death: preparing the patient for death (e.g., removal from dwelling, dressing in mortuary garments, last rites); preparing the funeral equipment (e.g., shroud, coffin); last words and last favors; criteria of death (e.g., coma, cessation of breath or heart action); attempts at revival; reaction to the impact of death (e.g., wailing, flight, self-mutilation); announcement of death; post-mortem examinations; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DYING"
764 - FUNERAL
attitude toward the corpse; mortuary toilet (e.g., dressing and decorating the body); laying out in state; preservative techniques (e.g., embalming, desiccation, mummification); determination of time, place, and mode of burial; interval between death and burial (e.g., duration, measures to prevent further deaths, manifestations of grief); vigils and wakes; place of disposal of corpse (e.g., cemetery, ossuary); receptacles (e.g., coffin, canoe, urn, tomb); method of disposal (e.g., abandonment, inhumation, cremation, sea burial, cave burial, tree or scaffold burial); preparation of grave. pyre, or scaffold; transport of corpse to place of disposal; procession to grave; disposition of corpse (e.g., posture, orientation); funerary mounds, monuments, and memorials; burial rites; mortuary sacrifices; disposition of grave goods; roles of relatives at funerals; economic obligations of participants (e.g., fees, contributions); precautions against return of the soul (e.g., silence, disguise, doors of the dead); return from the funeral; purification of participants; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "FUNERAL"
765 - MOURNING
duration of the mourning period; behavior of spouse and other relatives after the funeral (e.g., seclusion, mourning garb, observance of taboos, sacrifices); treatment of relics (e.g., preservation of skull or head, wearing of bones, use of hair for artifacts); visits to the grave; mortuary feasts; exhumation, second funeral, and reburial; ceremonies terminating mourning; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MOURNING"
766 - DEVIANT MORTUARY PRACTICES
abbreviated and extended funerals; distinctive mortuary rites in special cases of death (e.g., for an enemy, stranger, executed criminal, pauper, slave, child, women dying in childbirth, chief, shaman, warrior, person dying abroad, victim of accidental death, suicide, homicide, victim of epidemic or loathsome disease); ceremonies at the death of animals; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "DEVIANT MORTUARY PRACTICES"
767 - MORTUARY SPECIALISTS
burial associations; gravediggers; cemetery guards and caretakers; hired mourners; embalmers and undertakers; funeral parlors; status and remuneration of mortuary specialists; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MORTUARY SPECIALISTS"
768 - SOCIAL READJUSTMENTS TO DEATH
disposition of the possessions of the deceased (e.g., abandonment or relocation of dwelling, destruction or mutilation of movable possessions, redistribution of property); provision for support of spouse and children; residence changes of survivors; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SOCIAL READJUSTMENTS TO DEATH"
769 - CULT OF THE DEAD
avoidance of graves and cemeteries; propitiation of ghosts and ancestors; recurrent feasts of the dead; maintaining relations with the long dead; ancestor worship; household cults; hero worship; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CULT OF THE DEAD"
77 - RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
general statements about several types of religious beliefs and ideologies. The behavioral and organizational aspects of religion are treated, respectively, under the 78* and 79* categories.
> Ergebnisliste zu "RELIGIOUS BELIEFS"
771 - GENERAL CHARACTER OF RELIGION
conception of what constitutes religion; differentiation of the sacred and the profane; distinctions drawn between religion and superstition; relation of religion to the unknown and the unpredictable; relative prominence of magical and anthropomorphic elements; evidence of the expression of projective mechanisms in religious beliefs; primary orientation of the religious system (e-g., ancestor worship, nature worship, totemism, ritualism, mysticism, redemptive religion); social and individual role of religion (e.g., services and disservices); incidence of faith, indifference, and kkepticism; existence of nonsupernatural ideologies supported with a faith akin to that in religion (e.g., ethical systems, political philosophies); etc.
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771.1 - RELIGIOUS SYMBOLISM
> Ergebnisliste zu "RELIGIOUS SYMBOLISM"
771.2 - RELIGIOUS MYSTICISM
> Ergebnisliste zu "RELIGIOUS MYSTICISM"
772 - COSMOLOGY
conception of the universe; cosmological systems (e.g., heavens and hells); universal categories (e.g., dualism of nature); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "COSMOLOGY"
773 - MYTHOLOGY
cosmogony (e.g., theories and accounts of the creation of the world and of man); mythical epochs (e.g., golden age, age of the gods, age of animals); cataclysms (e.g., mythical floods and conflagrations); culture myths (e.g., accounts of a culture hero, mythical explanations of culture traits); myths about the origin of evil and death; nature myths; totemic myths; theogonic myths; ancestor myths; doomsday; etc.
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774 - ANIMISM
conception of the soul; number of souls; location in the body; characteristics (e.g., shape, visibility, separability); relation of the soul to the body, to the name, to the breath, to dreams, to shadows and reflections, and to life and death; notions of the temporary departure of the soul from the body; attribution of souls to animate and inanimate objects; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ANIMISM"
775 - ESCHATOLOGY
conception of the survival of the soul; career of the soul after death (e.g., mode of departure from the body, temporary sojourn near place of death, indefinite sojourn as a disembodied soul or ghost, journey to a realm of the dead); notions about ghosts, specters, apparitions, and phantoms (e.g., shape, substance, propensities); behavior of departed souls or ghosts (e.g., haunting of houses and cemeteries, visitations); spiritualistic beliefs; conception of a realm of the dead (e.g., place, mode of life, rewards and punishment); duration of afterlife; belief in immortality; ideas of transmigration and reincarnation; conception of the survival of the body (e.g., resurrection); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ESCHATOLOGY"
776 - SPIRITS AND GODS
conception of supernatural beings of a higher order than disembodied souls; indications of their genetic relationship to ghosts; prevalent types of supernatural beings (e.g., guardian and familiar spirits, tutelary divinities, tribal gods, nature spirits and gods, angels, animal and totemic divinities, fairies and sprites, demons, mythical monsters, deified heroes and saints, divine tricksters, occupational or functional deities, creator gods, rulers of the spirit world, high god or supreme being); attributes of individual deities and of categories of divine beings (e.g., name, sex, form, character, powers, functions, symbols); hierarchical arrangement (e.g., polytheistic pantheon, dualism, henotheism, monotheism); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SPIRITS AND GODS"
777 - LUCK AND CHANCE
concept of good and bad luck; ideas about chance and probability; things associated with good or bad luck (e.g., lucky objects, luck-bringing formulas, lucky and unlucky numbers, propitious and unlucky days); techniques for controlling luck (e.g., wearing of luck amulets, reciting of lucky formulas); conception of fate; etc.
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778 - SACRED OBJECTS AND PLACES
conception of sanctity (e.g., possession by an indwelling or frequenting spirit, infusion with impersonal supernatural power); idols and fetishes; extraordinary objects (e.g., bezoar stones, albino animals, mandrake roots) sacred places (e.g., shrines, altars , wells, bodies of water); asylum and sanctuary; notions of impersonal supernatural power (e.g., mana, soul-stuff) ; animatism; beliefs and practices of consecration and desecration: etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SACRED OBJECTS AND PLACES"
779 - THEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
elaborated systems of religious beliefs (e.g., totemism, pantheism, deism, theism); state religions ; revealed religions (e.g., Buddhism, Christianity, Mohammedanism); sacred books; content of complex systems of dogma and theology; association of theological systems with ethicss and philosophy; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "THEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS"
779.1 - “NATURAL RELIGIONS”
> Ergebnisliste zu "“NATURAL RELIGIONS”"
779.2 - INDIAN RELIGIONS
> Ergebnisliste zu "INDIAN RELIGIONS"
779.22 - BUDDHISM
> Ergebnisliste zu "BUDDHISM"
779.24 - HINDUISM
> Ergebnisliste zu "HINDUISM"
779.28 - LAMAISM
> Ergebnisliste zu "LAMAISM"
779.29 - NON-LAMAIST TIBETAN RELIGIONS
Bon religion; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "NON-LAMAIST TIBETAN RELIGIONS"
779.3 - CHINESE AND JAPANESE RELIGIONS
> Ergebnisliste zu "CHINESE AND JAPANESE RELIGIONS"
779.4 - JUDAISM
> Ergebnisliste zu "JUDAISM"
779.5 - ISLAM
> Ergebnisliste zu "ISLAM"
779.6 - NON-ISLAMIC NEAR EASTERN RELIGIONS
> Ergebnisliste zu "NON-ISLAMIC NEAR EASTERN RELIGIONS"
779.7 - RELIGIOUS SYNCRETISMS
Voodoo; Candomblé; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "RELIGIOUS SYNCRETISMS"
779.9 - CHRISTIANITY
> Ergebnisliste zu "CHRISTIANITY"
78 - RELIGIOUS PRACTICES
general statements dealing with several aspects of the description and analysis of specific religious rites and practices or types thereof. Extended ceremonies, in which various rites are combined in sequential order, are presented as units under Category 796. For cult of the dead see Category 769; for transmission of religious beliefs see Category 869.
> Ergebnisliste zu "RELIGIOUS PRACTICES"
781 - RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE
emotional reactions experienced in religious behavior (e.g., oppressive fear of malevolent higher powers, overwhelming awe of divine might, luxurious sense of dependence upon a benevolent and all-knowing superior, reassuring feeling of security through conformity, pridefull conviction of right , grateful release from the burdens of a guilty conscience, groveling humility of self-abnegation, ecstatic release of mysterious inner powers, mystic sense of identification with or absorption in the divine essence, esthetic thrill in religious art, music, or ceremonial); evidence as to the predominant type or types of religious experience in the particuolar society; emotional needs satisfied through religious behavior; etc.
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782 - PROPITIATION
practices reflecting a sense of dependence and a desire to ingratiate or influence the supernatural; repudiation and intimidation; obeisances (e.g., bowing, genuflection): laudation; prayer; sacrifice (e.g., libations, food sacrifices, animal and human sacrifice, symbolic and vicarious sacrifices); vows; burning of incense; decoration of religious edifices; endowing of shrines and temples; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "PROPITIATION"
783 - PURIFICATION AND EXPIATION
practices reflecting a sense of contamination or guilt ; concept of ritual uncleanness; things and persons considered unclean or impure; purification rites (e.g., ritual ablutions and bathing); concepts of sin, salvation, and redemption; riddance of sin (e.g., confession, remission, atonement, penance, scapegoat); etc.
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784 - AVOIDANCE AND TABOO
practices reflecting impulses to escape from fear or anxiety; techniques for avoiding malevolent spirits (e.g., flight, disguise, deception, disparagement); concept of taboo; imposition and removal of taboos; prevalent types of taboos (e.g., food taboos, property taboos, status taboos, word and name taboos, totemic taboos, sex taboos, reproductive taboos, therapeutic taboos, mortuary taboos); systematization of taboos; general discussion of taboos; list of taboos; specific taboos not classifiable elsewhere; supernatural punishments and their invocation for violations of taboos and other offenses; etc. Since taboos commonly represent the negative aspects of cultural norms, information on taboos may be found under many categories, only a few of which are indicated in the cross-references below.
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785 - ASCETICISM
practices reflecting tendencies of self-abasement or self-torture; mortification of the flesh (e.g., flagellation, hookswinging, bed of spikes); fasting; sexual renunciation (e.g., continence); renunciation of comforts (e.g., vows of poverty, wearing sackcloth); abandonment of worldly affairs (e.g., becoming a beggar or hermit); etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ASCETICISM"
786 - ORGIES
practices reflecting hysterical tendencies or release from normal inhibitions; frenzied singing and dancing; ceremonial license (e.g., phallic rites, temporary lifting of sex restraints, ceremonial intoxication); bacchanalian revels; religious prostitution; induced hysteria, hallucination, and swoon; religious revivalism; etc.
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787 - REVELATION AND DIVINATION
practices reflecting anxiety about the future and often also a sense of inspiration; quest for visions and guardian spirits; hallucinatory revelations; communication with spirits (e.g., through spirit possession, through inspired oracles, through mediums); prophesy; clairvoyance; acquiring mystic insight through concentration and contemplation; interpretation of dreams; omens and their interpretation; divinatory practices and techniques (e.g., geomaney, haruspicy, hepatoscopy, necromancy, scapulimancy, scrying, sortilege, astrology); etc.
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788 - RITUAL
practices reflecting relief of anxiety through performance of repetitive or obsessionally precise symbolic acts; compulsive gestures (e.g., sign of the cross); repetitive behavior (e.g., tolling of bells, burning of candles, sprinkling with holy water); recital of stereotyped formulas (e.g., blessings) ; mechanical praying (e.g., with rosary, with prayer wheel); recitation of litanies and liturgies (e.g., credos, masses); processions; making of pilgrimages; etc.
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789 - MAGIC
practices reflecting confidence in the ability to manipulate supernatural forces; magical techniques of weather control (e.g., rain making); magical rites for increasing the food supply exorcistic practices (e.g., driving off evil spirits with noise); potent formulas, incantations, and spells; curses; miracles; prevalent types of magic (e.g., imitative, contagious); concept of magical force; functions and social significance of magic; nonsupernatural magic (e.g., wonderworking, jugglery, legerdemain, fire-walking); etc.
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79 - ECCLESIASTICAL ORGANIZATION
general statements dealing with several aspects of the organization of religion, i.e., specialists, cult groups, and systematized ceremonial.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ECCLESIASTICAL ORGANIZATION"
791 - MAGICIANS AND DIVINERS
specialists in magic (e.g., wonder workers, exorcists, magicians, fakirs); specialists in divination (e.g., astrologers, oracles, diviners, fortune tellers, seers, mediums); characteristics of each (e.g., personality, sex, training, garb); sources of power; prerogatives and disabilities; organization; fees; etc.
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792 - HOLY MEN
prophets and messiahs; ascetics and anchorites; monks, friars, and nuns; monastic orders (e.g., mendicant, hermit, cenobite); monasteries and convents (e.g., organization, activities); monastic rules (e.g., poverty, celibacy); characteristics, status, and means of support of holy men: etc.
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793 - PRIESTHOOD
specialists in organized religious activities (e.g., priests, priestesses, clergymen, rabbis, mullahs); status and means of support; selection, training, and consecration; hierarchical organization (e.g., chief priests, bishops, cardinals, popes); prerogatives and disabilites of priests; characteristics (e.g., sex, garb, paraphernalia); distinctive behavior (e.g., celibacy); activities (e.g., conducting ceremonies, preaching, teaching, comforting); special priestly personnel (e.g., acolytes, temple prostitutes); etc.
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794 - CONGREGATIONS
groups organized for common worship (e.g., kin and local groups, special cult groups, church congregations, parishes); lay organization (e.g., elders, deacons, committees); qualification for membership; admission and disciplining of members; fund raising; maintenance of place of worship; religious activities (e.g., sunday school); secular church activities (e.g., education, welfare work, church gambling, temple money lending); recreational facilities (e.g., parish houses); etc.
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795 - SECTS
organized groups of congregations with differing and unreconciled systems of beliefs; crucial divergences in dogma; organization of sects or denominations (e.g., episcopal, congregational); admission of members (e.g., baptism, confirmation); distinguishing characteristics of members (e.g., special garb or behavior); established churches; splinter sects; interdenominational conferences and federations; territorial units [e.g., bishoprics, provinces); etc.
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796 - ORGANIZED CEREMONIAL
systematization of relioious ritual; ceremonial calendar (e.g., fixed and movable religious holidays, rest, days, and festivals); detailed description of the ceremonies regularly associated with each (e.g., participants, ceremonial attire and paraphernalia, prescribed succession of rites, accompanying music and dancing, symbolism); church and temple services; religious dramas and spectacles; notions of propitious and unlucky days for ceremonies; etc.
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797 - MISSIONS
religious proselyting and evangelism; religious conversions; organized missionary activities (e.g., by sects within the society, by missions from other societies, by foreign mission: abroad); mission organizations; mission stations; missionaries or evangelists (e.g., qualifications, selection, prerogatives and disabilities, religious activities); secular activities of missions and missionaries (e.g., education, medicine, technological assistance); etc.
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798 - RELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE
rivalry between sects; religious persecution and intolerance; concept of heretics; suppression of dissenters by established religions (e.g., massacres, inquisitions, discriminatory legislation); martyrdom and martyrs; antireligious proselytizing; etc.
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80 - NUMBERS AND MEASURES
general statements dealing with several aspects of mathematics, counting, and mensuration.
> Ergebnisliste zu "NUMBERS AND MEASURES"
801 - NUMEROLOGY
symbolic and mystical significance of numbers; ritual and pattern numbers (e.g., standard numerical repetitions of elements in folklore and ceremonial); lucky and unlucky numbers; etc.
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802 - NUMERATION
words for numerals (e.g., cardinal, ordinal); numerical signs and gestures; written numerals (e.g., Roman, Arabic); numerical system (e.g., quinary, decimal, vigesimal); methods of counting (e.g., on digits); aids to numeration (e.g., tallies, counters, abacus); upper limit of numerical reckoning; fractions and decimals; tabulations; etc.
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803 - MATHEMATICS
arithmetical calculation (e.g., addition, subtraction, multiplication; division); use of calculating machines; higher mathematical knowledge (e.g., algebra, geometry, calculus) ; mathematical theory; statistics (e.g., theory, methods, uses) ; etc.
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804 - WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
methods of measurment (e.g., comparison with parts of the body, use of mensurating tools, use of weighing and measuring machines); customary and standardized units (e.g., of length, area, volume, weight, heat, angles, electrical energy); complex techniques of measurement (e.g., surveying); governmental supervision of weights and measures; etc.
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805 - ORDERING OF TIME
sense of time; conception of a minimal unit of time (e.g., a moment); divisions of the day and night (e.g., hours); divisions of the year (e.g., weeks, months, seasons); longer time spans; solar, lunar, and stellar reckoning of time; methods of dating; calendar and calendrical knowledge; use of aids to measure the passage of time (e.g., sundials, clocks); etc.
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81 - EXACT KNOWLEDGE
general statements dealing with several aspects of the use of logic, scientific experiment, and other exact methods as means to the attainment of knowledge, and with the intellectual products of such methods. To the extent that exact knowledge is international or cross-cultural, only its degree of development in the particular society, not its detailed content, will be included in the categories below. For unsystematized ideas and theories about nature and man see the 82 categories. For journals and other publications of professional organizations see Category 204.
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811 - LOGIC
prevailing canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration: prevalence of nonlogical methods of reasoning (e.g., by analogy, free or mystical association, post hoc ergo propter hoc, rationalization); degree of acceptance of precise principles of definition, classification, and use of terms; notions of correct predication; formal principles of logic; development and use of symbolic or mathematical logic; etc.
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812 - PHILOSOPHY
degree of development and acceptance of elaborated metaphysical and epistemological systems (e.g., theories of being, of supersensible reality, of experience, of understanding, of knowledge); theoretical foundations of ethics (e.g., divine will, moral order of the universe, free will and moral accountability of the individual); ethical systems (e.g., hedonism, utilitarianism, perfectionism); teleological evaluations (e.g., theories of the highest good, idea of progress, pragmatism); theologians and philosophers (e.g., number, characteristics, status, sources of support, activities); etc.
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813 - SCIENTIFIC METHOD
relative prevalence of fact-thinking as opposed to wishful thinking; degree of reliance on common sense and experience; areas in which experimental evidence is normally accepted; degree of acceptance and use of exact methods (e.g., precise canons of historical and linguistic research, experimentation, comparative and statistical methods); philosophy of science; evidence bearing upon the relationship of science to magic, technology, and philosophy; etc.
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814 - HUMANISTIC STUDIES
historiography; archeology; biography; linguistic studies; research in literature and the fine arts; degree of interest, activity, and specialization in humanistic studies; humanistic associations (e.g., organization, membership, meetings); etc.
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815 - PURE SCIENCE
degree of acceptance of theories of natural causation; extent and dissemination of scientific knowledge, degree of development of knowledge and research in the natural sciences (e.g., astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology, biology) and in the social sciences (e.g., psychology, geography, anthropology, sociology, economics); extent of laboratory and research facilities, scientists (e.g., number, characteristics, status, sources of support, activities); scientific associations (e.g., organization, membership, meetings); etc.
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815.1 - SOCIAL/CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY
> Ergebnisliste zu "SOCIAL/CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY"
815.11 - INTRODUCTIONS, BIBLIOGRAPHIES
> Ergebnisliste zu "INTRODUCTIONS, BIBLIOGRAPHIES"
815.12 - CURRENT POSITIONS AND APPROACHES
> Ergebnisliste zu "CURRENT POSITIONS AND APPROACHES"
815.13 - ORGANIZATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS
> Ergebnisliste zu "ORGANIZATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS"
815.2 - SOCIOLOGY, SOCIOANTHROPOLOGY
> Ergebnisliste zu "SOCIOLOGY, SOCIOANTHROPOLOGY"
815.3 - PSYCHOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
> Ergebnisliste zu "PSYCHOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY"
815.4 - POLITICAL ECONOMY, ECONOMIC ANTHROPOLOGY
> Ergebnisliste zu "POLITICAL ECONOMY, ECONOMIC ANTHROPOLOGY"
815.5 - “VOLKSKUNDE”/EUROPEAN ANTHROPOLOGY
> Ergebnisliste zu "“VOLKSKUNDE”/EUROPEAN ANTHROPOLOGY"
816 - APPLIED SCIENCE
extent to which exact science is applied to practical problems; areas of such application; proliferation of laboratory and research facilities ; sources of support; applied scientists (e.g., number, activities , organizations ) ; etc.
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82 - IDEAS ABOUT NATURE AND MAN
general statements covering several types of speculative and popular notions concerning phenomena of the external world and of the human organism. Vernacular terms or names for any of these phenomena will be included in the appropriate 82 categories rather than in Category 192.
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821 - ETHNOMETEOROLOGY
ideas about night and day, dawn and twilight , rising and setting of the sun, phases of the moon, eclipses , solstices and equinoxes, and the succession of seasons; notions about heavenly bodies (e.g., sun, moon, stars , constellations , planets, comets, meteorites); ideas about meteorological phenomena (e.g., clouds and fog, frosts and drought, rain and snow, ice, hail and sleet, winds and whirlwinds, storms, thunder and lightning, rainbow, parhelion and aurora); associated behavior patterns (e.g., greeting the dawn, dispelling an eclipse); etc.
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822 - ETHNOPHYSICS
popular conceptions of matter, energy, and their properties; notions about space, time, and gravitation; ideas about form, color, and sound (e.g., color symbolism, patterned use of color); beliefs about shadows, reflections, and echoes; notions about electricity, magnetism, chemical properties (e.g., alchemy); etc.
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823 - ETHNOGEOGRAPHY
notions about water; ideas about hydrographic phenomena (e.g., oceans and seas, waves and tides, currents and whirlpools, rivers and streams, lakes and springs, floods); ideas about topographic phenomena (e.g., hills and mountains, canyons and valleys, caves and grottoes, striking natural formations, volcanoes and earthquakes); notions about minerals, metals, and precious stones; geographical and geological lore; map making; directions (e.g., upstream and downstream, cardinal points); ideas about the beauty of nature; associated behavior patterns (e.g., attempts to quell earthquakes); etc.
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824 - ETHNOBOTANY
notions about plants in general; ideas about particular plants (e.g., mistletoe); cultural uses of plants native terms for plants; knowledge of poisonous plants; associated behavior patterns; etc.
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825 - ETHNOZOOLOGY
notions about animals (e.g., mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, crustaceans, insects); ideas about particular animals (e.g., snakes, fireflies); cultural uses of animals; native terms for animals; associated behavior patterns (e.g., avoidance of snakes); etc.
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826 - ETHNOANATOMY
conception of ideal bodily proportions; ideas about the torso and its parts (e.g., belly, breasts, buttocks, navel, neck, spine), skin and pigmentation, hair (e.g., axial, body, facial, head, pubic), head and its parts (e.g., brain, ears, eyes, lips, mouth, nose, teeth, tongue), limbs (e.g., arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, toes, nails), blood, veins and arteries, bones, fat and muscles, nerves and sinews, internal organs (e.g., heart, intestines, kidneys, liver, lungs, stomach); interpretations of physical abnormalities (e.g., albinism, clubfoot, cretinism, dwarfism, harelip, hermaphroditism, hunchback); associated behavior patterns; etc.
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827 - ETHNOPHYSIOLOGY
ideas about anal reactions (e.g., urination, defecation, farting); circulatory reactions (e.g., heartbeat, pulse); dermal reactions (e.g., flushing, fever and temperature, perspiring, shivering, itching and twitching, sloughing of skin and hair); facial reactions (e.g., laughing, smiling, grinning, sneering, running of nose); ocular and auricular reactions (e.g., weeping, blinking, dilation of pupils, ringing of ears, secretion of wax); oral reactions (e.g., salivation, spitting, swallowing, vomiting, coughing, hiccoughing, yawning); ideas about digestion and respiration; notions about heredity; associated behavior patterns (e.g., scratching, congratulations upon sneezing); etc.
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828 - ETHNOPSYCHOLOGY
ideas about impulses or drives; conceptualization of sensation, perception, and emotions; standards of sensory pleasantness and unpleasantness; ideas about conscious and unconscious mental processes; notions about abnormal mental states (e.g., aphasia, catalepsy, coma, delirium, hallucination, hypnosis, hysteria, swoon); interpretations and explanations of neuroses and psychoses; ideas about habits, attitudes, and the learning process; concepts of the self, of human nature, of motivation, of personality, of character; associated cultural behavior; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ETHNOPSYCHOLOGY"
829 - ETHNOSOCIOLOGY
social philosophy; interpretations of the society's charter; ideas about societies; native views of world politics; native ideas about social relationships and social structure; concepts of society (e.g., social contract); notions about culture and cultural change; economic and political behavior (e.g., mercantilism); racial inequality; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ETHNOSOCIOLOGY"
83 - SEX
general statements about several aspects of sexual ideas and behavior. For marriage, see the 58 categories. For sex offenses, see Category 684.
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831 - SEXUALITY
ideas about the male and female sex organs; conceptions of sexual physiology (e.g., erection, nocturnal emission); notions about seminal and vaginal secretions; favorable attitudes toward sex (e.g., as natural, necessary, amusing, sacred); idealization of sex (e.g., romantic love); unfavorable attitudes toward sex (e.g., as dangerous, debilitating, unclean, disgusting, sinful); idealization of continence and chastity; preoccupation with sex (e.g., sexual symbolism in religion and the arts, obscenity, pornography); etc.
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832 - SEXUAL STIMULATION
ideals of erotic beauty and sexual attraction; enhancement of sexual appeal (e.g., through wearing of alluring garb, use of perfumes and cosmetics, artificial development of the breasts and genitalia); acts interpreted as erotic overtures; suggestive gestures (e.g., winking, staring) ; innuendoes; serenades; love magic; techniques of sexual approach; terms of endearment: caresses and embraces; kissing; coyness and bashfulness; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "SEXUAL STIMULATION"
833 - SEXUAL INTERCOURSE
sexual initiation (e.g., age and circumstances of first intercourse for each sex, preferred partner); defloration; times and places considered appropriate for coitus; degree of interest and enjoyment ascribed to and manifested by each sex; initiative in copulation; degree of elaboration of preliminary sex play; preferred, variant, and tabooed postures; accompanying behavior (e.g., biting, urinationl; frequency and duration of coitus; occurrence of female orgasm; artificial means of augmenting sensation; behavior after coitus (e.g., sexual hygiene); psychic difficulties in coitus; impotence and frigidity (e.g., prevalence, explanation, prevention, treatment); etc.
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834 - GENERAL SEX RESTRICTIONS
sexual modesty and decorum; ideas of proper behavior between the sexes; sex taboos observed on particular occasions (e.g., before or during ceremonies, war, hunting, or special industrial activities): miscellaneous sex restrictions; etc.
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835 - KINSHIP REGULATION OF SEX
incest taboos (e.g., between primary relatives, bilateral and unilinear extensions); patterned exceptions to primary incest taboos (e.g., ceremonial and dynastic incest); violations of incest taboos (e.g., incidence, circumstances, notions of physical and social results, treatmean of offspring); privileged and tolerated sex relations between kinsmen (e.g., between cross-cousins, between siblingsin- law); etc.
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836 - PREMARITAL SEX RELATIONS
presence or absence of a standard of chastity for the unmarried; variations in the standard (e.g., by sex, by class status); basis of the standard (e.g., material or ethical considerations); prevalence of premarital liaisons; degree of social approval or disapproval; seduction; assignations; permanency and exclusiveness of premarital unions; reciprocal behavior of lovers; incidence of rivalry and jealousy; termination of liaisons; evidence as to infertility of premarital unions; etc.
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837 - EXTRAMARITAL SEX RELATIONS
presence or absence of an ideal of marital fidelity; cultural definition of adultery (e.g., applying to both spouses, to wife only); allegations of promiscuity; incidence of adultery for both sexes; prevention (e.g., cloistering of women, chastity belts); initiation and conduct of adulterous liaisons; cicisbeism; keeping of mistresses culturally sanctioned extramarital relations (e.g., wife lending, sexual hospitality); etc.
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838 - HOMOSEXUALITY
conceptualization (e.g., as normal, as abnormal); prevalence for each sex: specific behavior patterns; repulation (e.g., by incest taboos and exogamous rules); institutionalization (e.g., in bachelor organizations); reactions of the comnmunity (e.g., toleration, disgust); variant attitudes correlated with sex, age, and marital condition; transvestism; etc.
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839 - MISCELLANEOUS SEX BEHAVIOR
incidence of nocturnal emission, masturbation, petting to orgasm, bestiality, necrophilia, sexual sadism and masochism, exhibitonism, voyeurism, sexual fetishism, and rape; personal and social characteristics, circumstances, methods, and social reaction for each type of behavior; eunuchs (e.g., number, status, activities); etc.
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84 - REPRODUCTION
general statements dealing with several aspects of the cultural adjustments, behavioral and ideological, to the reproductive cycle in women.
> Ergebnisliste zu "REPRODUCTION"
841 - MENSTRUATION
theory of menstruation and the menstrual cycle (e.g., association with lunation); beliefs about menstrual blood: associated practices (e.g., medicinal and magical uses of menstrual blood, avoidance of contact, methods of stanching and disposal); behavior and treatment of women during menses (e.g., isolation, imposition of taboos, purificatory rites); adjustments in behavior of spouse and parents; recognized symptoms of menstruation; explanation and treatment of irregular, excessive, or prolonged menses; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "MENSTRUATION"
842 - CONCEPTION
theory of impregnation and paternity; fertility and sterility (e.g., incidence, conceptualization); desire for children and preferences as to sex; methods of inducing conception and of counteracting barrenness and sterility; treatment of barren women and sterile men; methods of influencing conception (e.g., determining sex, preventing twins, inducing healthy offspring); prevention of conception (e.g., continence, coitus interruptus, contraceptive devices); attitudes toward birth control; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "CONCEPTION"
843 - PREGNANCY
theory of pregnancy; determination of pregnancy (e.g., from cessation of menses, darkening of areola, abdominal protuberance, fetal movements); forecasting time of delivery; predicting sex; treatment and behavior of the pregnant woman (e.g., relief from work, dealing with nausea and giddiness, gratification of food cravings, observatior of taboos, regimen, isolation); associated rites and ceremonies; sympathetic behavior of husband; ideas about embryonic development; practices intended to facilitate delivery and insure healthy offspring; differences in treatment of first and subsequent pregnancies; miscarriages (e.g., disposal of fetus, associated beliefs and practices); etc.
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844 - CHILDBIRTH
ideas about childbirth; attitude of the community; importance of first and subsequent births; preparations for delivery; place of birth; witnesses, assistants, and excluded persons; role of midwives and obstetricians; onset and duration of labor; facilitation of delivery (e.g., pressure, massage); posture in childbirth; receiving the baby; severing and tying the umbilical cord; expulsion of placenta; disposal of exuviae; immediate care of mother and child; cleansing, bandaging, and medication of mother; adjustments to postnatal hemorrhage; treatment of baby (e.g., initiation of respiration, cleansing, swaddling); etc.
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845 - DIFFICULT AND UNUSUAL BIRTHS
explanations of prolonged, difficult, and fatal deliveries; methods of dealing with abnormal presentations; obstetrical surgery (e.g., use of forceps, Caesarian section); beliefs and practices connected with unusual births (e.g., premature births, caul births); stillbirths (e.g., conceptualization, disposal of stillborn infant); delivery and treatment of deformed infants; notions about birthmarks; multiple births (e.g., conception of causation, reaction of the community, treatment of twins); special observances and ceremonial associated with unusual births and persons distinguished by unusual births; etc.
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846 - POSTNATAL CARE
care of postparturient mother during period of recuperation (e.g., rest, isolation, medication, taboos); duration of lochia and its disposal; visits and presents; resumption of normal life (e.g., gradual, after lapse of a specified time); purificatory rites; special care of child between birth and sloughing of umbilical cord; conceptualization and disposition of umbilical cord; treatment and disposition of motherless infants; special behavior of father (e.g., couvade); etc.
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847 - ABORTION AND INFANTICIDE
-prevalence of abortion; reasons and circumstances (e.g., illegitimate pregnancy); methods; disposal of fetus; reaction of community (e.g., toleration, disapproval); prevalence of infanticide; reasons and circumstances (e.g., illegitimate pregnancy, deformity, death of father or mother); methods used; disposal of corpse, reaction of community; etc.
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848 - ILLEGITIMACY
cultural definition of legitimacy and illegitimacy frequency of illegitimate pregnancies; tests of legitimacy; behavior and treatment of mother (e.g., ordeals, confession); treatment of father (e.g., forced marriage); treatment of offspring; status of illegitimate children; etc.
> Ergebnisliste zu "ILLEGITIMACY"
85 - INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD
general statements dealing. with several aspects of the care, physical development, activities, and status progression of children from birth to puberty. For their socialization see the 86 categories.
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851 - SOCIAL PLACEMENT
assignment of infant to a male parent (e.g., under polyandry, in case of a posthumous child); public announcement of birth; formal acceptance of infant into a social group (e.g., by family head or chief); alignment with the supernatural (e.g., baptism); changes in marital status and social relationships wrought by birth of a child; etc.
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852 - CEREMONIAL DURING INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD
rites of passage prior to puberty; maturation ceremonies (e.g., at first step, at first tooth); rites associated with cutting of hair, ear piercing, and circumcision; ceremonies correlated with achievements (e.g., first animal killed, first cloth woven); adult guidance and sponsorship; participation of children in adult ceremonies (e.g., Christmas); etc.
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853 - INFANT FEEDING
conception of lactation, milk, and colostrum; beliefs about sucking; initiation of suckling in newborn infants; stimulation of the flow of milk; routine of nursing (e.g., posture, intervals); feeding problems; treatment and behavior of the nursing mother (e.g., diet, sexual abstention); communal nursing; fosterage; adjustments to death of mother; supplementary feeding (e.g., age at beginning, appropriate foods and their preparation); method of feeding (e.g., bottle, cup, spoon); etc.
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854 - INFANT CARE
care of routine bodily needs; cleaning; dealing with excreta; clothing and swaddling; provisions for sleep (e.g., cradles, cribs); playing with infants (e-g., fondling, dandling, rocking, crooning); emotional care (e.g., distracting techniques, methods of soothing, guarding against emotional upsets); watching and tending; special dangers ascribed to period of infancy; protection from real and supernatural dangers; hygienic and therapeutic measures; methods of holding and carrying infants (e.g., on back, astride hip); distribution of care among members of the family; institutionalized care (e.g., nurseries); etc.
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855 - CHILD CARE
supervision, care, and support of children from earliest independence (e.g., walking, talking) to puberty; distribution of responsibility among parents and other relatives; institutionalized care (e.g., day nurseries); beliefs and standards concerning proper clothing, feeding, and housing of children; provisions for physical and mental health; protection from physical and social dangers (e.g., confinement, removal of dangerous objects); attitude of adults toward children (e.g., indulgent, indifferent, censorious); spoiling and coddling; mistreatment and neglect of children; etc.
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856 - DEVELOPMENT AND MATURATION
concepts and standards of physical, mental, and emotional behavior and development during infancy and childhood; data on infant behavior; methods of promoting and influencing growth (e.g., molding of head, magical rituals); adjustments to growth; data on maturation (e.g., age at creeping, standing, walking, talking, cooperation); attitudes toward and special treatment of development events (e.g., teething, growth of hair and nails, increases in weight and stature); reactions and adjustments to retardation and precocity; etc.
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857 - CHILDHOOD ACTIVITIES
extent to which a special culture of childhood exists; children's play; imitative activities (e.g., make-believe); habits of rest and sleep; children's playgroups, cliques, and gangs; quarreling and fighting; children's explorations and haunts; tasks performed by children and age at which each is undertaken (e.g., errands, chores, care of younger children); etc.
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858 - STATUS OF CHILDREN
cultural definition of status periods and progression of statuses during infancy and childhood; rights, privileges, and powers of children (e.g., special exemptions); restrictions and disabilities of infants and children (e.g., special taboos); conception of legal minority; extent to which children are treated as inherently inferior or merely as inexperienced adults; stereotyped ideas about children (e.g., concepts of the good and the naughty child); differential expectations and treatment of children (e.g., according to age, sex) , etc.
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86 - SOCIALIZATION
general statements dealing with several aspects of the basic mechanisms of cultural transmission, especially the socialization of impulses and the more informal educational processes. For formal education see the 87 categories; for personality and its development see the 15 categories.
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861 - TECHNIQUES OF INCULCATION
ideas about childhood training; general methods of inculcation and discipline; specific techniques of providing motivation (e.g., inciting, warning, scolding, threatening, punishing); specific techniques of guidance (e.g., leading, demonstrating, explaining, commanding); specific techniques of providing rewards (e.g., helping, recompensing, praising); special emphasis on particular techniques (e.g., in general, at different ages, for particular types of training); consistency or inconsistency in the use of techniques; ages at which conscious parental inculcation begins and ends; etc.
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862 - WEANING AND FOOD TRAINING
adult beliefs, standards, and aims concerning weaning and appropriate eating habits for children; special reasons for weaning (e.g., insufficient lactation, illness or pregnancy of mother); normal age at weaning (e.g., separation from mother, ridicule, application of bitter substances to nipple); reactions of children to weaning; impositon of rules about eating; teaching of table manners; resistance of children to food training; etc.
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863 - CLEANLINESS TRAINING
adult beliefs, standards, and aims concerning sphincter control and cleanliness for children; normal age at beginning and completion of bladder and bowel control: techniques employed; bladder and bowel incontinence (e.g., incidence, parental reaction, treatment); methods of teaching children to wash, bathe, and groom themselves; inculcation of standards of cleanliness, neatness, and orderliness, reactions of children to cleanliness training; etc.
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864 - SEX TRAINING
adult beliefs, standards, and aims concerning sex behavior in children and methods of sex training; incidence of specifically sexual behavior in infants and children (e.g., masturbation, fingering of genitals, exhibitionism, sex play); rules for the control of such behavior (e.g., imposition, inculcation, enforcement); training in sexual modesty; imparting of knowledge and beliefs about sex and reproduction; reactions to curiosity of children about sex; normal age for each aspect of sex training; reactions of children to sex training; etc.
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865 - AGGRESSION TRAINING
adult beliefs, standards, and aims concerning aggression in children and means of controlling it; incidence and treatment of physical aggression (e.g., striking, biting, kicking, hair-pulling); incidence and treatment of verbal aggression (e.g., insults, profanity, teasing); incidence and treatment of annoying behavior (e.g., crying, whining, noisiness); incidence and treatment of disobedience, defiance, and temper tantrums; incidence and treatment of rivalry and jealousy in children; rules governing the control of aggressive behavior (e.g., imposition, inculcation, enforcement); approved forms of and occasions for aggression (e.g., rules, inculcation); etc.
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866 - INDEPENDENCE TRAINING
adult beliefs, standards, and aims concerning dependence in children and the development of independence; culturally prescribed age levels for the achievement of independence; incidence and treatment of dependent behavior (e.g., clinging to parents, tattling); induration to heat, cold, pain, and fatigue (e.g., exposure, ordeals, flogging); inculcation of courage; teaching of selfreliance and readiness to assume responsibility; inculcation of cooperation and competitiveness; instilling of levels of aspiration (e.g., for knowledge, for skills, for social advancement); reactions of children to demands for independence; etc.
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867 - TRANSMISSION OF CULTURAL NORMS
inculcation of norms concerning appropriate behavior for children (e.g., rest and sleep routines); initiation of children into social relationships (e.g., teaching to share and take turns, instruction in etiquette and kinship behavior); training in sex-typed attitudes and values (e.g., ladylikeness, manliness); instilling of respect for property; instruction in social, ethical, legal and political norms; techniques for inculcating morals and character; etc.
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868 - TRANSMISSION OF SKILLS
acquisition of language; teaching children to walk and swim; techniques for inculcating manual dexterity and technological skills; teaching and learning of economic skills appropriate to each sex; informal instruction in occupational skills; acquisition of artistic skills (e.g., playing of musical instruments); relative importance of imitation, practice, and instruction in the transmission of skills; etc.
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869 - TRANSMISSION OF BELIEFS
special techniques for the inculcation of beliefs, knowledge, attitudes and values not covered elsewhere in this section (e.g., supernatural beliefs, beliefs concerning phenomena of the external world); manipulation of anxiety in support of beliefs (e.g., arousing it for motivation, relieving it for reinforcement); role of accident and coincidence in confirming supernatural beliefs (e.g., rain following a rain-making rite, winning a race while wearing a luck charm); extent to which reality testing is inhibited or encouraged in children; etc.
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87 - EDUCATION
general statements dealing with several aspects of the more formal and institutionalized aspects to the educational process, especially instruction conducted in schools, by specialized tutors, or through formal apprenticeship. For informal education see the 86 categories.
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871 - EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
degree of development and elaboration of formal education; prevalent types of educational specialization (e.g., schools, tutors, apprenticeship); source of support of teachers and educational institutions (e.g., fees from students, ecclesiastical aid, private gifts and endowments); systematization of education (e.g., local school boards, state educational agencies, voluntary organizations of educational administrators); degree of standardization as to levels, policies, language, and curricula; primary objectives of formal education (e.g., piety, morality, citizenship, vocational skills, intellectual leadership); diffusion of education (e.g., educational statistics); attitudes toward education; etc.
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872 - ELEMENTARY EDUCATION
tutorial education; primary schools (e.g., private, parochial, public); periods of instruction (e.g., terms, vacations, hours per day, days per week, weeks per year, years required for graduation); compulsory or voluntary attendance; objectives (e.g., universal literacy); curriculum (e.g., subjects and their progression); grading and advancement; educational aids (e.g., textbooks,.stationery, blackboards); ceremonial (e.g., graduation); special institutions for very young children (e.g., nursery schools, kindergartens); etc.
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873 - LIBERAL ARTS EDUCATION
existence, number, and variety of institutions on the secondary and college levels devoted to instruction in the liberal arts; special objectives (e.g., inculcation of aristocratic ideals, preparation for democratic leadership, refinement of personal tastes, preparation for rational choice of careers); sources of financial support; administration; curricula; courses and terms; education aids (e.g., libraries); grading and advancement; degrees; ceremonial (e.g., commencement); extracurricular activities (e.g., sports, politics, debating); special institutions (e.g., finishing schools, adult education); etc.
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